THREE CHINESE PHILOSOPHIES
CONFUCIANISM LEGALISM DAOISM
Confucianism Based on the teachings of Confucius (Kongfuzi)
Main book is the Analects, which contains Confucius’ thoughts Concerned about human behavior People should treat one another with love and respect Focuses on improving society Restoring a respect for tradition would make society stable once again Proper behavior is to follow the Dao (the way) Two elements to the Dao – duty and humanity Everyone must work hard to fulfill their duties Confucianism
Needs of the family and community come before personal needs
Five Relationships Ruler and subject Husband and wife Parent and child Older sibling and younger sibling Friend and friend Belief in filial piety = obedience and devotion to parents, especially the male head of the family Spread to Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
Legalism Founded by Hanfeizi and Li Si, two advisors to Emperor Shi Huangdi of the Qin dynasty Believed that human beings are evil by nature Reject Confucius’ idea of leading by virtue Instead need harsh laws and punishments to make sure people stay on the correct path A ruler does not need to be compassionate or show mercy People must be kept in line by fear of punishment A powerful and efficient gov’t was key to maintaining order and control over an empire Rulers should be strong and govern through force Strong ruler = orderly society
Daoism “The Way” Main teachings by a philosopher named Laozi
Main book Dao De Jing Also concerned with proper behavior Encourages people to retreat from the laws of society and yield to the laws of nature Promotes harmony with nature By finding one’s place in nature, it is possible for a person to achieve harmony with the universe The true way to follow the will of Heaven is not through action, but inaction Let nature take its course Embraced an ancient Chinese concept, the notion of yin and yang Yin and yang represent the balancing aspect of nature Male and female, dark and light, hot and cold When balanced, yin and yang represent the perfect harmony of nature
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