2Roots of Philosophy: The Decline of the Zhou Zhou had been divided into many small kingdoms.Civil War breaks out in 403 B.C.“Period of the Warring States”During this time, Chinese philosophers wanted to create stability in society.Create ideas about human relationships.Become ideas behind Confucianism & Taoism
3Turn to your neighbor and discuss the following. What do you think should be the proper relationship between these pairings according to our society today?*Parent – Child*Older Sibling – Younger Sibling* Husband – Wife*Ruler – Subject
4The Life of Confucius Born in 551 B.C. Tried to convince warlords to lead their people by example.They ignore him.Returns to home-town to become teacherTeaches future leaders his ideas on ethics.They go on to change Chinese society.Followers write the Analects
5The Life of ConfuciusConfucius believed there is an order in the universe.Humans must act in harmony with this order.Two basic ideas:DutyIf everyone does their duty to the fullest, then society will prosper.HumanityCompassion and empathy for others.
6Confucius’ Teachings :Two Basic Ideas… DutyFive Constant RelationshipsParent – ChildParents love childrenChildren revere parentsHusband – WifeHusbands fulfill duty to wifeWife are obedient3. Older Sibling – Younger SiblingElder sibling should be a kind teacherYounger sibling should be respectful4. Older Friend – Younger FriendOlder friend should be considerateYounger friend should be deferential5. Ruler – SubjectRulers should be benevolentSubjects should be loyal“Let the ruler be filial and kind to all people, then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent; then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous.”-Confucius
7Confucius’ Teachings :Two Basic Ideas… “Do not do unto others what you would not wish to be done to yourself.”-ConfuciusHumanityWisdom
8Sayings From the Analects Knowing what he knows and knowing what he does not know is a characteristic of a person who knows.Making a mistake and not correcting it is making another mistake.The superior man blames himself. The inferior man blames others.To go too far is as wrong as to fall short.
9Confucianism Wrap Up Questions: Comparing Eastern Philosophies How would Confucius react to the Hindu Caste system?Both philosophies share the idea of “duty.”In which steps of the Buddhist Middle Path can you see the Confucian concept of “humanity?”
10Turn to your neighbor and discuss the following… Do you believe in fate? If so, what sorts of things do you believe can be “left to fate?”
11Taoism Tao = “the path” or “the way” Philosophy of Laozi Lived during the time of Confucius (c. 500 B.C.)Also looked to end the Warring States!
12Taoism – Basic BeliefsThe Tao is a “power” which envelops, surrounds and flows through all things, living and non-living.Creates balance in the Universe. It embodies the harmony of opposites.There would be no love without hate, no light without dark, no male without female.Referred to as yin and yang.Let nature take its course by not interfering with itHarmonize yourself with the Tao.
13Taoism – Basic Beliefs"We believe in the formless and eternal Tao, and we recognize all personified deities as being mere human constructs. We reject hatred, intolerance, and unnecessary violence, and embrace harmony, love and learning, as we are taught by Nature. We place our trust and our lives in the Tao, that we may live in peace and balance with the Universe, both in this mortal life and beyond."
14In summary…Confucianism believes that it is the duty of human beings to work hard to improve the life here on Earth.“If there is righteousness in the heart, there will be beauty in the character. If there is beauty in the character, there will be harmony in the home. If there be harmony in the home, there will be order in the nation. If there be order in the nation, there will be peace in the world.”Taoists believe the way to act in harmony is to not interfere with the natural order.“The universe is sacred.You cannot improve it.If you try to change it, you will ruin it.If you try to hold it, you will lose it.”- Laozi