9“In serving his parents, a filial son renders utmost respect at home; he supports them with joy; he gives them tender care in sickness; he grieves at their death; he sacrifices to them with solemnity” Confucius
10Confucian Ideas About Government Believed education could transform a humbly born person into a gentlemanCreated a bureaucracy, a trained civil service. (people who are paid to work for the government)
11Confucius’s Four Virtues of a Gentleman CourtesyPrecisionGenerosityFairness
12Daoists Seek Harmony Founded by Laozi (Lao-tzu) Wrote Dao De Ching (The Way of Virtue)Only the natural order is importantA universal force known as the Way guides all thingsLook to nature to explain everything that happens in the world
13Legalists Urge Harsh Rule Believed that a highly efficient and powerful government was the key to maintaining orderFounded by Hanfeizi and Li Si.Rulers should reward those who do their duties well.Rulers should harshly punish any disobedience
14“Anyone caught outside his own village without a travel permit should have his nose or ears chopped off” Li Si
15I Ching A book of oracles People threw a set of coins and then interpreted the result of the coin toss by reading the appropriate chapter.
16Yin and Yang Represent the natural rhythms of life Yang = Heaven, Male, ActiveYin = Earth, Female, PassiveYin is represented by the the tiger and the color orangeYang is represented by the dragon and the color blue
17The Qin Dynasty A New Emperor Takes Control Replaced the Zhou dynastyA 13 year old Qin ruler replaced the Zhou dynastyAfter 20 years, he took the name Shi Huangdi, which means “First Emperor”
18Qin Shi Huangdi Stopped internal fighting in China Defeated invaders Doubled China’s sizeUnified China under one empire
19Shi Huangdi Wanted to “strengthen the trunk and weaken the branches” All noble families had to live in the capital cityDivided China into 36 administrative districts, he controlled them all
20Shi Huangdi Had Confucian scholars buried alive Burned “useless” books Established an autocracy – a government in which the ruler has unlimited power
21A Program of Centralization Built 4000 miles of highwaysForced peasants to work against their willSet uniform standards for Chinese writing, law, currency, and weights and measuresBuilt irrigation projectsIncreased farm production
22Shi HuangdiMade social advances, but high taxes and a repressive government resultedHe unified China at the expense of human freedom
23Great Wall of ChinaShi Huangdi closed the gaps in previous attempts at building a Great Wall of ChinaLaborers were forced to work on the wall or die
26The Fall of Qin Shi Huangdi’s son was less able to rule Peasants revolted against his rule and took overOne of their leaders was from the land of Han. His troops marched into the capital and established the Han dynasty in 202 B.C.
27An Empire Unifies China 4 4 HOME4An EmpireUnifies ChinaSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain how the chaos of the warring states affected Chinese philosophy, politics, and the growth of cities.Chaos of the warring statesPhilosophyPoliticsCitiesConfucius, the Legalists, and Laozi offered solutions to the chaos.Shi Huangdi took harsh steps to impose unity and stability.People moved to them for protection.continued . . .