Presentation on theme: "An Empire Unifies China Chapter 4 Section 4 p. 97-101."— Presentation transcript:
An Empire Unifies China Chapter 4 Section 4 p
Terms to Know: Confucius Filial Piety Bureaucracy Daoism Legalism I Ching Yin and Yang Qin dynasty Shi Huangdi Autocracy
Philosophy and the Social Order Traditional Chinese values were put aside during the “Warring States” period. Chinese scholars offered solutions to China’s problems.
Confucius Urges Harmony Born 551 B.C. Lived during the warring states period Taught history, music, and moral character
Confucius Good government could be restored by five basic relationships: 1. Ruler and Subject 2. Father and Son 3. Husband and Wife 4. Older and Younger Siblings 5. Friend and Friend
Filial Piety Respect for parents and elders
“In serving his parents, a filial son renders utmost respect at home; he supports them with joy; he gives them tender care in sickness; he grieves at their death; he sacrifices to them with solemnity” - Confucius
Confucian Ideas About Government Believed education could transform a humbly born person into a gentleman Created a bureaucracy, a trained civil service. (people who are paid to work for the government)
Confucius’s Four Virtues of a Gentleman Courtesy Precision Generosity Fairness
Daoists Seek Harmony Founded by Laozi (Lao-tzu) Wrote Dao De Ching (The Way of Virtue) Only the natural order is important A universal force known as the Way guides all things Look to nature to explain everything that happens in the world
Legalists Urge Harsh Rule Believed that a highly efficient and powerful government was the key to maintaining order Founded by Hanfeizi and Li Si. Rulers should reward those who do their duties well. Rulers should harshly punish any disobedience
“Anyone caught outside his own village without a travel permit should have his nose or ears chopped off” -Li Si
I Ching A book of oracles People threw a set of coins and then interpreted the result of the coin toss by reading the appropriate chapter.
Yin and Yang Represent the natural rhythms of life Yang = Heaven, Male, Active Yin = Earth, Female, Passive Yin is represented by the the tiger and the color orange Yang is represented by the dragon and the color blue
The Qin Dynasty A New Emperor Takes Control Replaced the Zhou dynasty A 13 year old Qin ruler replaced the Zhou dynasty After 20 years, he took the name Shi Huangdi, which means “First Emperor”
Qin Shi Huangdi Stopped internal fighting in China Defeated invaders Doubled China’s size Unified China under one empire
Shi Huangdi Wanted to “strengthen the trunk and weaken the branches” All noble families had to live in the capital city Divided China into 36 administrative districts, he controlled them all
Shi Huangdi Had Confucian scholars buried alive Burned “useless” books Established an autocracy – a government in which the ruler has unlimited power
A Program of Centralization Built 4000 miles of highways Forced peasants to work against their will Set uniform standards for Chinese writing, law, currency, and weights and measures Built irrigation projects Increased farm production
Shi Huangdi Made social advances, but high taxes and a repressive government resulted He unified China at the expense of human freedom
Great Wall of China Shi Huangdi closed the gaps in previous attempts at building a Great Wall of China Laborers were forced to work on the wall or die
The Fall of Qin Shi Huangdi’s son was less able to rule Peasants revolted against his rule and took over One of their leaders was from the land of Han. His troops marched into the capital and established the Han dynasty in 202 B.C.
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain how the chaos of the warring states affected Chinese philosophy, politics, and the growth of cities. An Empire Unifies China 4 continued... Section 4 Assessment HOME Chaos of the warring states Philosophy Politics Cities Confucius, the Legalists, and Laozi offered solutions to the chaos. Shi Huangdi took harsh steps to impose unity and stability. People moved to them for protection.