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4.4 The Unification of China

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1 4.4 The Unification of China
Ancient China 4.4 The Unification of China

2 Chaos of Warring States leads to New Philosophies
Scholars try to restore Social order, Harmony, & Respect for authority

3 3 Philosophical Systems
Confucianism Daoism (Taoism) Legalism Yin Yang often symbolizes Confucianism = Balance in society = balance in universe. Symbol for Daoism is often the Bagua, which mixes personal, social, political factors of life with elements in the Universe and Nature. Legalism doesn’t have a symbol. The bottom one is the Chinese character for justice.

4 Yin & Yang Opposite rhythms of the universe
Yin: Earth, Feminine, Passive, Tiger Yang: Sky, Masculine, Active, Dragon

5 Confucius (551 – 479 BC) China’s greatest scholar
Social harmony & good Govt. depend on the duties of 5 relationships ruler & subject father & son husband & wife older brother & younger friend & friend Confucius (Romanized version of name) (Real name was Kung Fu Tzu = master of Kung) wanted to reform society. Wanted to be a public leader but because the Duke of Liu (his employer) sought greedy endeavors, Confucius retired felleing as if he were a failure. Yet he is one of the most influential people in history. The GOLDEN RULE: Do not do unto others what you would not want done to yourself = coined by Confucius 500 years before Christ.

6 Confucianism Dominant philosophy of China Values
was supported by some Emperors Values Social Order through Filial Piety Education is important to society Everyone has Civic Responsibility Govt. jobs (civil service) should be based on Merit Relate Education to the Meritocracy = Education = merit = trained civil service = well run bureaucracy

7 Confucian Civil Service
Focus of Education = train Civil Servants = govt. workers A trained civil service = Bureaucracy Candidates were required to pass a test on Confucian ethics Anyone could take it, but only rich could afford the education needed.

8 Chinese Emperor (in Yellow, the color of divinity) receiving the Civil Service test of a student of Confucian philosophy. Dates from the Song Dynasty (1100s AD)

9 Daoism The Dao = “The Way” = universal force that guides nature
Founded by Laozi (6th Century BC) The Dao = “The Way” = universal force that guides nature Harmony comes from Nature = study nature to become one with the Dao = achieve internal harmony.

10 Laozi believed that things in nature do not strive for fame or fortune but just exist “as is.” Therefore, humans cannot hope to change outcomes in nature, but instead seek knowledge of nature through the Dao. Governments should leave people’s lives alone and instead let them be in harmony with nature. Nature provides an alternative to social and political chaos.

11 Daoist Practices Internal Harmony thru… Tai Qi
Traditional Chinese Medicine Astrology Acupuncture is the use of tiny needles inserted into various points of the body to relieve pain. It is thought these points are channels from which Qi (CHI) flows. Making sure your Qi is in good order will restore your Ying and Yang to balance and bring good health.

12 Chinese Daoist astrology map: or Zodiac = Each animal naturally behaves a certain way. Humans born on that respective year have those personality characteristics.

13 Legalism Founded by Li Si
Order thru strong govt. that provides rich rewards & harsh punishments. Govt. controls thoughts & actions Li Si = “Lee-Say” was chief minister to Emperor Qin Shi Huang Di

14 Confucian Scholars are buried alive under order of the Emperor (in yellow). Their books are burned to control thought.

15 The Qin Dynasty 221-202 BC Founded by Qin Shi Huangdi
United China under an Autocratic Emperor. Used Legalism to crush all political & intellectual threats. Qin (Chin) is where we get the name China from. Qin built the 1st unified Great Wall using forced labor. MAP: Blue is great wall.

16 Qin Shi Huangdi = Son of Heaven, the First Emperor of China (united)

17 View of the Great Wall from Space: the only recognizable man-made structure that can be viewed from space.

18 Terracotta warriors of Qin’s tomb = all are unique, still thousands of them are buried in the rock.

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