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Animal Nutrition. What is animal nutrition? The dietary needs of domesticated and captive wild animals.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Nutrition. What is animal nutrition? The dietary needs of domesticated and captive wild animals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Nutrition

2 What is animal nutrition? The dietary needs of domesticated and captive wild animals

3 Why is animal nutrition important? Animals need proper nutrition to support their body requirements: – Growth – Maintenance – Work – Reproduction – Lactation

4 How are nutritional requirements determined? Digestive System – Ruminant or Non-Ruminant Feeding Type – Carnivore, Omnivore or Herbivore Body Requirements

5 How are nutritional requirements met? By feeding a balanced diet

6 What is a balanced diet? A feeding program that: – Stimulates natural feeding behaviors – Meets all nutritional requirements – Is practical and economical

7 How are natural feeding behaviors stimulated? Feeding diets that allow the animal to obtain their food in a similar manner to that in the wild – Where – How – Time – Type

8 How are nutritional requirements met in the diet? Providing a diet that consists of the 6 basic nutrients in quantities appropriate for each specific animal species

9 What are the 6 basic nutrients? Carbohydrates Fats and Oils Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water

10 What are carbohydrates? Nutrients made up of sugars, starches & cellulose Provide energy – Largest source of energy in a diet Source – Cereal grains (corn, wheat and oats) – Roughage (alfalfa hay, grasses and plants) – Sugars (Molasses to improve taste & reduce dust)

11 Corn

12 What are fats & oils? Nutrients made up of triglycerides and fatty acids Provide energy – 2.25 times the energy as carbohydrates Extra carbs are stores as fat Carry fat soluble vitamins Source – Grain & protein concentrates (corn & soybean oil) – Natural feed ingredients (meat, fish, nuts & eggs)

13 Soybean Oil

14 What are proteins? Nutrients made up of amino acids Provide materials for growth – Body tissues (muscles, skin & hair) Source – Plant (soybean, cottonseed & alfalfa meal) – Animal (meat & fish meal, dried milk)

15 Meat

16 What are vitamins? Organic compounds, containing carbon, needed in small amounts Provide materials for body regulation – Water soluble (B-complex & C) – Fat soluble (A, D, E & K) Source – Pre-mix (powder added to feed, best way to provide) – Natural feed ingredients (fruits & vegetables)

17 Vitamin C

18 What are minerals? Inorganic compounds, containing NO carbon, needed in small amounts Provide materials for growth and regulation – Bones, teeth & tissues (calcium & phosphorus) – Chemical homeostasis (iron, folic acid & copper) Source – Pre-mix (powder) or mineral block (separate from feed) – Natural feed ingredients (meat, milk, green vegetables) – Nature (soil & rocks)

19 Calcium

20 What is water? The most important nutrient, essential for the survival of all animals Provides: – Hydration of body – Transport system for nutrients (dissolves & carries) Source – Supplied separately from diet From a clean well or plumbing

21 H2OH2O

22 Nutrient Review Carbohydrates – Provide energy – Sources Cereal Grains – Corn (most popular) – Oats and Wheat Roughages – Alfalfa Hay (high energy/fiber) Sugars – Molasses (increases palatability *taste* and reduces dust)

23 Nutrient Review Fats and Oils – Provide energy 2.25x more than carbohydrates – Carry fat soluble vitamins – Sources Grain and protein concentrates – Vegetable oil Natural sources – Meats, nuts and dairy products

24 Nutrient Review Proteins – Provide amino acids for growth and development – Sources Animal – Meat, Bone and Fish meal – Dried milk Plant – Soybean and cottonseed meal *The word meal is almost always after the protein source *

25 Nutrient Review Vitamins – Regulate body functions – Designated by letters (A, B, C, D, E and K) – Sources Premix – Most effective source Natural sources – Fruits and Vegetables

26 Nutrient Review Minerals – Regulate body functions – Provide growth of bones and tissues – Sources Premix – Most certain source Natural sources – Meats, vegetables, rocks and soil

27 Nutrient Review Water – Hydrate the body Makes up 40-80% of the body – Regulate body functions – Transport nutrients – Sources Clean water sources

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