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Nutrients and Nutrient Requirements Topic 3041 Anna Blight Modified by Ashlee Gibson.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrients and Nutrient Requirements Topic 3041 Anna Blight Modified by Ashlee Gibson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrients and Nutrient Requirements Topic 3041 Anna Blight Modified by Ashlee Gibson

2 Nutrients Any feed component that functions in the support of life

3 20 Chemical Elements in Nutrients Carbon (C) Calcium (Ca) Chlorine (Cl) Cobalt (Co) Copper (Cu) Fluorine (F) Hydrogen (H) Iodine (I) Iron (Fe) Magnesium (Mg) Manganese (Mn) Molybdenum (Mo) Nitrogen (N) Oxygen (O) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Selenium (Se) Sodium (Na) Sulfur (S) Zinc (Zn)

4 Six Basic Classes of Nutrients Water Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals

5 Composition of Feeds Concentrates Cereal grains Oil meals Molasses Dried milk products Roughages Hays and straws Silage Cut green feeds Grazed forages

6 Concentrates High in energy Low in fiber Highly digestible Includes corn, wheat, barley, oats, milo, soybean meal, linseed meal, and cottonseed meal

7 Roughages Less digestible than concentrates Bulkier, coarser feed

8 Water Most important nutrient Contains hydrogen and oxygen Transports other nutrients Helps maintain normal body temperature

9 Water Consumption in ONE day SpeciesGallons Dairy Cattle28-50 Beef6-20 Horse5-15 Pig5-8 Sheep1-3 100 Turkeys15 100 Chickens9

10 Carbohydrates Major energy source Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Found in grains and hays

11 Types of Carbohydrates Starches –Grain, root crops, other plant materials Sugars –Simple sugars (monosaccharides) –Double sugars (disaccharides) –Milk and fruit Fiber –Plant cell walls and cellulose –Fermented by bacteria in foregut of ruminant and hind gut fermentors (require in their diet)

12 Fats Fats and oils are primary energy source 2.25 times more energy / pound than carbohydrates Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

13 Protein Only nutrient class that contains nitrogen Protein in feeds contain average of 16% nitrogen Building blocks of the body Proteins compose most of the muscle mass

14 Important factors in feeding protein: When feeding protein The amount of protein. The quality of protein. The compliment of amino acids in proteins

15 Ruminants vs Non-Ruminants Protein Ruminants can make essential amino acids Done by rumen bacteria from simple forms of nitrogen Urea Only used for Ruminants Protein substitute –Source of nitrogen of rumen organisms to produce bacteria Used only in small amounts

16 Protein from animals Fish meal Meat and bone meal milk blood meal

17 Protein from plants Soybean oil meal Soybeans Cottonseed meal Canola Legumes

18 Plant Protein Location of Protein in feed material The "germ" is the part of the grain kernel which usually contains available protein.

19 Minerals Elements other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Macrominerals are required in larger amounts Microminerals required in smaller amounts Necessary for healthy body functions

20 Vitamins Organic nutrients, contain carbon Provide for very specific body functions Required in very small amounts 16 known vitamins in animal nutrition A, C, D, E, K, choline and the B- complex vitamins

21 Two basic functions run by energy are maintenance and reproduction Supplied by nutrients containing carbon Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins all supply energy Energy evaluation of feeds is measured by total digestible nutrients, digestible energy, energy for metabolism, and net energy

22 Importance of Nutrition Energy supplied by nutrients are used to drive a variety of body functions and power animal movement

23 Healthy and productive livestock require proper nutrition Reference Taylor, R.E., Field, T.G. (1998). Scientific Farm Animal Production. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Pp. 269-282.

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