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Nutrition & Feeding.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition & Feeding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition & Feeding

2 Nutrition Terms Nutrition Nutrient
Process by which animals receive a proper and balanced food and water ration so it can grow, maintain its body, reproduces, and perform. Nutrient substance or part of feedstuff that is necessary for an organism to live and grow. Also known as a single group of foods of the same general chemical composition that supports animal life Required nutrients include water, carbohydrates, fats, protein, minerals, and vitamins.

3 Six Basic Nutrients Water Protein Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals

4 Water Most important nutrient
Animals can go without food for several days, but can only survive without water for ~3 days Vital for proper body functions Makes up 55-65% of an animal’s body Purposes: Dissolves and transports other nutrients aids in digestion carries waste from the body Regulates body temperature and supports breathing

5 Protein Complex nutrients composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Purpose: Develop and repairing body organs and tissues (i.e.: muscles, nerves, skin, hair, hooves, and feathers) Important in the reproduction process of the developing fetus, transmitting DNA, and development of young

6 Carbohydrates Important in converting of food into energy
Carbohydrates are made up of chemical elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Types: sugars, starch, fiber Purpose: Supports body functions, breathing, digesting, etc. Stores fat, and produces heat for body warmth

7 Fats Contains the same chemical elements of C, H, & O as carbs, but in different combinations Purpose: Provides energy contains 2.25 times more energy than carbs/protein Aid in absorbing fat soluble vitamins Provide essential fatty acids needed in an animal’s diet

8 Vitamins Organic substances designated by the letters A, B, C, D, E, and K. Needed for specific biochemical reactions. Needed in very small amounts Purpose: Needed for regulating the digestive system, absorption, and metabolism

9 Minerals Inorganic Purpose:
Supply the material for building bones, teeth, the skeleton Producing body regulators such as enzymes and hormones. Minerals are divided into two Divided into TWO groups Macro minerals seven major minerals needed in largest quantity most likely lacking in the ration Micro minerals nine trace minerals that are only needed in small amounts

10 Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms
Slow Growth Common w/ALL Water Body becomes overheated Slow down in normal body function Protein Growth and repair of tissues suffers Anorexia, anemia, edema; slow growth rate, low birth weight, lower milk production, decreased feed efficiency Carbohydrate Lack of energy/body heat Fat Lack of energy Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is affected Vitamin Body functions are affected Mineral Lower rate of gain, feed inefficiency, decreased milk/egg/wool production, decreased reproduction,

11 Major Way Nutrients are used
Maintenance Rations high in carbohydrates and fats designed to keep animal constant with no gain or loss of weight. Growth Rations high in energy and protein so as to increase the animal’s body size. Reproduction ration A ration that contains the largest amount of protein, minerals, and vitamins of any ration Reproduction rations improve conception rates and breeding ability for males and females and are important for producing live, healthy offspring that have a good birth weight. Lactation Rations for lactating (milk producing) females encourage large milk production and are high in protein, calcium, and phosphorus (same nutrients contained in the milk). Work and activity Rations need increased amounts of fats and carbohydrates to supply the extra energy needed to perform (example: hunting dog chasing game).

12 Nutrition Terms Diet Ration Feed and water an animal receives
Amount and type is based on: 1 – what animal needs, 2 – what nutrients are in feed Must be palatable Ration Feed that contains right proportion of nutrients “Balanced ration”

13 Feed Classification Roughages Concentrates Supplements Leaves & plants
Recommended for small animals b/c high in energy & protein High Energy Diet Corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, oats High Protein Diet Soybean oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, sunflower meal Supplements If needed

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