2 Nutrition Terms Nutrition Nutrient Process by which animals receive a proper and balanced food and water ration so it can grow, maintain its body, reproduces, and perform.Nutrientsubstance or part of feedstuff that is necessary for an organism to live and grow.Also known as a single group of foods of the same general chemical composition that supports animal lifeRequired nutrients include water, carbohydrates, fats, protein, minerals, and vitamins.
3 Six Basic NutrientsWaterProteinCarbohydratesFatsVitaminsMinerals
4 Water Most important nutrient Animals can go without food for several days, but can only survive without water for ~3 daysVital for proper body functionsMakes up 55-65% of an animal’s bodyPurposes:Dissolves and transports other nutrientsaids in digestioncarries waste from the bodyRegulates body temperature and supports breathing
5 ProteinComplex nutrients composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogenPurpose:Develop and repairing body organs and tissues (i.e.: muscles, nerves, skin, hair, hooves, and feathers)Important in the reproduction process of the developing fetus, transmitting DNA, and development of young
6 Carbohydrates Important in converting of food into energy Carbohydrates are made up of chemical elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.Types:sugars, starch, fiberPurpose:Supports body functions, breathing, digesting, etc.Stores fat, and produces heat for body warmth
7 FatsContains the same chemical elements of C, H, & O as carbs, but in different combinationsPurpose:Provides energycontains 2.25 times more energy than carbs/proteinAid in absorbing fat soluble vitaminsProvide essential fatty acids needed in an animal’s diet
8 VitaminsOrganic substances designated by the letters A, B, C, D, E, and K.Needed for specific biochemical reactions.Needed in very small amountsPurpose:Needed for regulating the digestive system, absorption, and metabolism
9 Minerals Inorganic Purpose: Supply the material for building bones, teeth, the skeletonProducing body regulators such as enzymes and hormones. Minerals are divided into twoDivided into TWO groupsMacro mineralsseven major minerals needed in largest quantitymost likely lacking in the rationMicro mineralsnine trace minerals that are only needed in small amounts
10 Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms Slow GrowthCommon w/ALLWaterBody becomes overheatedSlow down in normal body functionProteinGrowth and repair of tissues suffersAnorexia, anemia, edema; slow growth rate, low birth weight, lower milk production, decreased feed efficiencyCarbohydrateLack of energy/body heatFatLack of energyAbsorption of fat-soluble vitamins is affectedVitaminBody functions are affectedMineralLower rate of gain, feed inefficiency, decreased milk/egg/wool production, decreased reproduction,
11 Major Way Nutrients are used MaintenanceRations high in carbohydrates and fats designed to keep animal constant with no gain or loss of weight.GrowthRations high in energy and protein so as to increase the animal’s body size.Reproduction rationA ration that contains the largest amount of protein, minerals, and vitamins of any rationReproduction rations improve conception rates and breeding ability for males and females and are important for producing live, healthy offspring that have a good birth weight.LactationRations for lactating (milk producing) females encourage large milk production and are high in protein, calcium, and phosphorus (same nutrients contained in the milk).Work and activityRations need increased amounts of fats and carbohydrates to supply the extra energy needed to perform (example: hunting dog chasing game).
12 Nutrition Terms Diet Ration Feed and water an animal receives Amount and type is based on: 1 – what animal needs, 2 – what nutrients are in feedMust be palatableRationFeed that contains right proportion of nutrients“Balanced ration”
13 Feed Classification Roughages Concentrates Supplements Leaves & plants Recommended for small animals b/c high in energy & proteinHigh Energy DietCorn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, oatsHigh Protein DietSoybean oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, sunflower mealSupplementsIf needed