Roughages 18% or more Fiber Hard to Digest Two types Legumes NonLegumes
Roughages Legumes Plants that have root nodules (lumps) that contain bacteria that fix nitrogen from the air in soil. Clover and Alfalfa Nonlegumes Plants that can not fix nitrogen from the air in soil Grasses, and corn stalks.
Roughages Ruminants can use more roughages than nonruminants. Younger ruminants cannot use as much roughage as older ruminants
Concentrates Protein Concentrates More than 20% Protein Animal Protein Meat meal, egg, milk product, bone meal Vegetable Protein Soybean meal (legume), distiller grains
Concentrates Carbohydrate Concentrates Less than 20% Protein Grains Corn, sorghum, oats, wheat, dried beet pulp
Ration Characteristics Ration Amount of Feed given to an animal to meet its needs in 24 hours. Balanced Ration Provides the nutrient needs of the animal in the proper proportions.
Balanced Ration Must be: palatable meet nutritional requirements of animal nonharmful economical http://ansci.colostate.edu/dep/ardec/bryce13.jpg
Ration Functions Maintenance Maintaining life ½ of the ration is used for maintenance Growth After maintenance needs are met, then the ration is used for growth
Ration Functions Fattening Nutrients not used for maintenance or growth Stored in the tissues of the body Fat stored in muscle is called marbling Production Cows, swine, horses, sheep, and goats Require special nutrients Examples: Produce milk to feed their young Dairy Animals ( for human use)
Ration Functions Reproduction Extremely important for pregnant animals May become sterile it does not get adequate level of nutrition. Work Requires increased energy Horse and Oxen Pulling, driving, riding
Pearson Square Is a useful tool for simplifying the balancing of rations It shows the proportions or percentages of two feeds to be mixed together to give a percent of the needed nutrient.
Reference Modern Livestock and Poultry Production 6 th Edition James R. Gillespie Delmar Publishing