Presentation on theme: "The Federalist Era Chapter 8. Ratification of the Constitution At the Constitutional Convention, delegates often contrasted a national or consolidated."— Presentation transcript:
The Federalist Era Chapter 8
Ratification of the Constitution At the Constitutional Convention, delegates often contrasted a national or consolidated republic with a purely federal unionusing the word federal to refer to the Articles of Confederation. After the Convention, the friends of the Constitution take the label Federalista propaganda victory. Opponents of the Constitution labeled Anti-Federalists.
Federalists in the Ratification Debate Supported the ratification of the Constitution Argued that the Articles were too weak to hold the Union together Madison argued that for the Union to survive, the government had to be truly based on the people; i.e., power in Congress based on population and at least part of it elected directly by the people.
The Federalist Series of 85 newspaper essays by Publius, begun in answer to series of essays by Brutuspublished first in New York papers. Series originated by Alexander Hamilton; John Jay contributed 5 before he fell ill; James Madison took over as Hamiltons partner in the series.
The New Government in Effect Constitutional debates began September 17, 1787Virginia ratified by the end of June, and New York by the end of July, When Congress under the Articles of Confederation met in the fall, they certified the ratifications of 11 states and called on the states to 1) appoint presidential electors and have them vote, 2) appoint senators, and 3) elect representatives.
March 4, 1789the date selected by the Congress of the Confederation for the new Constitution to go into effect. Congress was to meet on this date. When Congress met, it opened and counted the electoral votes and announced what everyone expected: George Washington was unanimously elected President. Washington had to get official word in Virginia and then travel to New York to be inaugurated, in April.
Washingtons First Term: Most of 1789 devoted to creating the government: 12 amendments passed by Congress and submitted to the states. Congress created the Departments of State, War, and Treasury. Thomas Jefferson came home from France to become Secretary of State. Henry Knox made Secretary of War. Alexander Hamilton made Secretary of the Treasury.
Hamiltons Program Congress in creating the Treasury Department made the Secretary responsible to them as well as to the Presidenthe was to prepare reports for Congress. Hamiltons Reports on the Public Credit and Report on Manufactures (1790) set out a detailed plan for economic development: creating and funding a national debt, managing federal finances, and promoting American manufactures.
Opposition to Hamiltons Program Thomas Jefferson and James Madison argued that Hamiltons plans were unconstitutional the Constitution did not provide for chartering a national bank. Jefferson, Madison, and James Monroe believed Hamilton was intent on building a tiny privileged elite dependent on the federal government for their wealththis would tend to promote the creation of a monarchy rather than a truly republican government.
Opposition to Hamiltons Program Hamilton wanted to restore the credit of the United States by paying its securities at full face value. Veterans of the Continental Army had been given promissory notes in lieu of pay. When the Confederation was broke during the Critical Period, this paper seemed worthless. Speculators had bought up millions of dollars worth for pennies on the dollar. Jefferson and Madison charged that Hamilton had a hand in this speculation.
Opposition to Hamiltons Program To unify the nation and firmly establish its credit, Hamilton wanted the federal government to take over the war debt of the states. This upset the South, which with its export economy, had already paid its war debt. The laggards were the Northern stateswho said they had paid more in blood than the South had. CompromiseHamilton and Jeffersons deal
Reactions to the French Revolution French Revolution began July 14, Welcomed in the United StatesMarquis de Lafayette an early leader French Revolution turned radicalreign of terror ; war between France and England Citizen Genet arrived in the US as French ambassador in 1793; commissioned privateers to attack British shipping. Genet also encouraged formation of Democratic-Republican clubs.
Emerging Parties Republicans Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, in coalition with New York anti-Hamilton machine Strict construction of the Constitution/statesrights Favored agrarianism Favored France in the emerging Anglo-French wars Radical Democratic- Republicans favored another revolution Federalists Hamilton, John Adams, and other friends of government Loose construction of the Constitution/expansive view of federal powers Favored manufacturing Favored England in the emerging Anglo-French wars Viewed Republicans as dangerous enemies of stable government
Washingtons Second Term Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793 Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 Scandals and frictions: Hamilton, Jefferson, and Randolph all left the cabinet.
Election of 1796 First contested election John Adams elected President with 71 electoral votes; Thomas Jefferson with 68 electoral votes was runner-up and so elected Vice President. XYZ Affair, 1797 Undeclared naval war against France, Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 Kentucky and Virginia Resolves, 1798
Election of 1800 Convoluted election results: Jefferson, 73 electoral votes Aaron Burr, 73 electoral votes John Adams, 65 electoral votes Charles C. Pinckney, 64 electoral votes John Jay, 1 electoral vote
Revolution of 1800 Peaceful transfer of power from Federalists to Jeffersonian Republicans