2Ratification of the Constitution At the Constitutional Convention, delegates often contrasted a “national” or “consolidated republic” with a “purely federal” union—using the word federal to refer to the Articles of Confederation.After the Convention, the friends of the Constitution take the label “Federalist”—a propaganda victory. Opponents of the Constitution labeled “Anti-Federalists.”
3Federalists in the Ratification Debate Supported the ratification of the ConstitutionArgued that the Articles were too weak to hold the Union togetherMadison argued that for the Union to survive, the government had to be truly based on the people; i.e., power in Congress based on population and at least part of it elected directly by the people.
4The FederalistSeries of 85 newspaper essays by “Publius,” begun in answer to series of essays by “Brutus”—published first in New York papers.Series originated by Alexander Hamilton; John Jay contributed 5 before he fell ill; James Madison took over as Hamilton’s partner in the series.
5The New Government in Effect Constitutional debates began September 17, 1787—Virginia ratified by the end of June, and New York by the end of July, 1788.When Congress under the Articles of Confederation met in the fall, they certified the ratifications of 11 states and called on the states to 1) appoint presidential electors and have them vote, 2) appoint senators, and 3) elect representatives.
6March 4, 1789—the date selected by the Congress of the Confederation for the new Constitution to go into effect. Congress was to meet on this date.When Congress met, it opened and counted the electoral votes and announced what everyone expected: George Washington was unanimously elected President.Washington had to get official word in Virginia and then travel to New York to be inaugurated, in April.
7Washington’s First Term: 1789-1793 Most of 1789 devoted to creating the government: 12 amendments passed by Congress and submitted to the states.Congress created the Departments of State, War, and Treasury.Thomas Jefferson came home from France to become Secretary of State.Henry Knox made Secretary of War.Alexander Hamilton made Secretary of the Treasury.
8Hamilton’s ProgramCongress in creating the Treasury Department made the Secretary responsible to them as well as to the President—he was to prepare reports for Congress.Hamilton’s Reports on the Public Credit and Report on Manufactures (1790) set out a detailed plan for economic development: creating and funding a national debt, managing federal finances, and promoting American manufactures.
9Opposition to Hamilton’s Program Thomas Jefferson and James Madison argued that Hamilton’s plans were unconstitutional—the Constitution did not provide for chartering a national bank.Jefferson, Madison, and James Monroe believed Hamilton was intent on building a tiny privileged elite dependent on the federal government for their wealth—this would tend to promote the creation of a monarchy rather than a truly republican government.
10Opposition to Hamilton’s Program Hamilton wanted to restore the credit of the United States by paying its securities at full face value.Veterans of the Continental Army had been given promissory notes in lieu of pay.When the Confederation was broke during the Critical Period, this paper seemed worthless. Speculators had bought up millions of dollars worth for pennies on the dollar.Jefferson and Madison charged that Hamilton had a hand in this speculation.
11Opposition to Hamilton’s Program To unify the nation and firmly establish its credit, Hamilton wanted the federal government to take over the war debt of the states.This upset the South, which with its export economy, had already paid its war debt. The laggards were the Northern states—who said they had paid more in blood than the South had.Compromise—Hamilton and Jefferson’s deal
12Reactions to the French Revolution French Revolution began July 14, 1789.Welcomed in the United States—Marquis de Lafayette an early leaderFrench Revolution turned radical—reign of terror ; war between France and EnglandCitizen Genet arrived in the US as French ambassador in 1793; commissioned privateers to attack British shipping.Genet also encouraged formation of Democratic-Republican clubs.
13Emerging Parties Republicans Federalists Hamilton, John Adams, and other “friends of government”Loose construction of the Constitution/expansive view of federal powersFavored manufacturingFavored England in the emerging Anglo-French warsViewed Republicans as dangerous enemies of stable governmentJefferson, Madison, Monroe, in coalition with New York anti-Hamilton machineStrict construction of the Constitution/states’rightsFavored agrarianismFavored France in the emerging Anglo-French warsRadical Democratic-Republicans favored another revolution
14Washington’s Second Term Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793Whiskey Rebellion, 1794Scandals and frictions: Hamilton, Jefferson, and Randolph all left the cabinet.
15Election of 1796 First contested election John Adams elected President with 71 electoral votes; Thomas Jefferson with 68 electoral votes was runner-up and so elected Vice President.XYZ Affair, 1797Undeclared naval war against France,Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798Kentucky and Virginia Resolves, 1798