2 First President President Washington Elected President 4/30/1789 John Adams appointed Vice President“No slip will pass unnoticed”Responsible for setting precedents or traditions
3 The Cabinet The First Congress 1789 congress set up 3 departments in the Executive BranchState Dept. – handles foreign relationsTreasury Dept. – financial mattersWar Dept. – nation’s defenseAttorney General – handle’s the nation’s legal affairs
4 The CabinetSecretary of State – Thomas JeffersonSecretary of Treasury – Alexander HamiltonSecretary of War – Henry KnoxAttorney General – Edmund RandolphDept. heads and Att. General became known as the cabinet and regularly met with WashingtonCongress created the cabinets but issues arose over how much power the President had over the depts.Adams’s vote breaks the tie in the Senate and allows the President to dismiss cabinet members the Senate approvesDoes this help give the President more control of the executive branch?
5 Judicial Branch Judiciary Act Judiciary Act of 1789 – Congress established 13 district courts and 3 circuit courtsFederal courts would have the right to reverse state decisionsSupreme Court becomes final authority on many issuesWashington’s nomination of John Jay as Chief Justice was approved by the Senate
6 Bill of Rights Bill of Rights Guarantees personal liberties Proposed by Madison during the first session of CongressPassed 12 amendments and the States ratified 10Bill of Rights limits the power of the governmentProtects the rights of individualsProtects the rights of the states (Madison included this to use the states as a way to keep the national gov. from becoming too powerful)
7 Financial Problems Financial Problems Washington left financial issues to HamiltonNational debt – the amount the nation’s gov. owedHamilton wanted to repay the states and individualsCongress had plans to pay off other nationsMany bond owners sold their bonds for less than they paid for them to speculatorsHamilton felt the state would begin to trust and support the new national gov.
8 Financial Problems Hamilton’s plan contd’ Hamilton’s plan called for repayment of bonds at full face valueThis angered the original bond ownersHamilton’s plan also angered southern states because their share of the debt was much less than the Northern states, and under Hamilton’s plan they would have to pay much more
9 Financial Problems . Hamilton’s Compromise – In order to make Southern leaders happy Hamilton’s plan moved the nation’s capitol from New York city to a district between Virginia and Maryland. Washington D.C. Southerners then agreed to pay off state debts
10 Economy and The National Bank Hamilton’s plan to boost the economy included the creation of a national bank, a tariff, and national taxes.Madison and Jefferson opposed the bank feeling that it was unconstitutionalHamilton’s protective tariff would protect American industry from foreign competitionSouthern states had little industry to protect so they opposed the tariff
11 Economy and The National Bank New taxes were introduced and passed to give the gov. additional funds to operate including a tax on whiskeyHamilton’s plan gave the country new financial powers, but split the nation and congress over issues. Opponents including Madison and Jefferson feared a strong national gov. that favored the wealthy