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Launching the New Nation

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Presentation on theme: "Launching the New Nation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Launching the New Nation
CHAPTER 6 Launching the New Nation

2 Section 1 – Washington Heads the New Government
CHAPTER 6 Section 1 – Washington Heads the New Government

3 Washington at the Helm George Washington, commanding general of Continental Army during Revolution, unanimous choice to be the first president Constitution provided strong foundation, but lacked details Washington and his admin. would have to figure out a lot on their own Needed to figure how to… 1. Raise $ and manage economy 2. Provide for defense 3. Set up a court system Set many important precedents

4 Washington’s Cabinet Alexander Hamilton
In 1789 Congress created the first four executive departments The heads of each of these departments made up the first cabinet – a group of advisors to the president Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War Henry Knox Attorney General Edmund Randolph Alexander Hamilton


6 1st Chief Justice of Supreme Court
Creating the Courts Constitution said little about the structure of the judicial branch Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 to establish structure of the courts Established three levels of the Federal Judiciary - Supreme Court - Federal Courts of Appeals - Federal District Court Supreme Court included 6 justices including a Chief Justice (today it is 9 justices) West v. Barnes President Chart John Jay 1st Chief Justice of Supreme Court

7 Hamilton’s Economic Plan
U.S. incurred millions of $ of debt from Revolution – some to other countries, some to U.S. citizens (bonds) Hamilton’s Plan Calls For... 1. Fed. government to assume individual state debts 2. Bonds to be repaid in full by National government 3. National Bank Many in South opposed plan – felt it favored the North Northern and southern states strike a deal – Hamilton’s plan passes and capital moves to Washington D.C.

8 Hamilton’s Economic Plan
Debate over Hamilton’s plan led to rift in Washington’s cabinet, formation of first political parties Hamilton and supporters of plan become Federalists, Jefferson and opponents of plan become Democratic- Republicans Biggest divide over National Bank proposal Federalists believe Elastic Clause (Art. I Sec. 8) gives Congress power to create bank – “loose” interpretation of Constitution Dem-Rep oppose bank, believe in “strict” interpretation

9 The Whiskey Rebellion In 1791 Hamilton’s proposed tax on the manufacture of American whiskey passed in Congress Western farmers were outraged by the tax, and in 1794 the Whiskey Rebellion took place in western Pennsylvania Washington sent in 13,000 troops to stop the rebellion Demonstrates the ability of the new government to enforce federal law

10 Democratic Republicans Federalists
Believed in strong central government Economy based on business/industry Loose interpretation of Constitution Led by Hamilton, John Adams Most from Northeast Bankers, artisans, merchants Supported English Believed in states’ rights Economy based on farming – agrarianism Strict interpretation of Constitution Led by Jefferson, Madison Most from South and West Farmers Support French

11 Hamiltonian vs. Jeffersonian
Manufacturing Nation Trinity Church New York, NY Citizen Farmer Monticello Charlottesville, VA

12 Washington’s Foreign Policy
French Revolution begins in Radicals gain control, Britain and France go to war again in Washington issues proclamation of neutrality Presidents Chart

13 Jay’s Treaty Britain began seizing American ships, inciting Native Americans Washington sends John Jay to Britain in attempt to avoid war GB removed troops in NW Terr., settled border disputes – no discussion of impressment or innocent bystanders during war Republicans unhappy with treaty, but Washington ratifies – prevents war with GB

14 Conflict with Native Americans
Indian Confederacy forms in Northwest Territory led by Chief Little Turtle Washington sends Gen. “Mad Anthony” Wayne to put down resistance Wayne defeats Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in southern Ohio Ended resistance in Northwest Territory Presidents Chart

15 Election of 1796 After 2 terms, Washington decides step down and retire In his famous Farewell Address to the American people, he warns against sectionalism, political parties, and foreign alliances Presidents Chart

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