4 (1) The Pope calls for Christians to reclaim the Holy Land The Holy Land is the city of Jerusalem and the area around it, also called PalestineIt is sacred to Christians, Jews, and Muslims, who ALL make pilgrimages thereThe Seljuk Turks (Muslims) had captured Palestine making Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land impossible.The Turks started to attack the Christian cities of the Byzantine Empire and the Byzantine Emperor asked the Pope for help.
6 Other reasons for the Crusades… (2) Success in warfare is a way for European feudal nobles (princes) to gain power(3) Merchants wanted to gain access to rich trade routes to the east(4) Peasants wanted a chance for adventure, treasures, and win favor with God.
8 The First Crusade 1096 – 1099, the war lasted 4 years In 1099, the Christian forces finally captured the city of JerusalemThey divided the conquered land into 4 Crusader states: Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem
10 The Second Crusade1147 – 1149, Muslim Turks recaptured Edessa, one of the Crusader statesChristians kept control of the other states because Muslim leaders were not united, but that is about to change…Saladin was a powerful Muslim leader who began to unify the Muslims in the region
12 The Third Crusade 1189 – 1192, Saladin had recaptured Jerusalem Richard the Lion-Hearted was a powerful Christian leader for the crusade because of his courage and skillAfter 3 years of fighting, Saladin and Richard agreed on a truce in 1192Muslims keep control of Jerusalem, but Christians are allowed to make pilgrimages.
14 End of the Crusades There were more crusades By 1270, the Muslims drove the Crusaders out of Palestine
15 Effects of the Crusades Good…Traders and pilgrims maintained an exchange of cultural ideas between Europe and AsiaIncreased trade helped towns to growBad…Christians increased intolerance toward non-ChristiansReconquista and Inquisition are examples of this intolerance