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Seed: Seed Hormones Seed Coat Embryo Storage Tissue (Endosperm)

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Presentation on theme: "Seed: Seed Hormones Seed Coat Embryo Storage Tissue (Endosperm)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Seed: Seed Hormones Seed Coat Embryo Storage Tissue (Endosperm)
CK-CytoKinin cell division GA-Gibberellic Acid cell expansion AbA-Abscisic Acid dormancy




5 Fruit Origins: Simple Fruit Aggregate Fruit Multiple Fruit

6 Fruit Composition Superior Ovary Hypogynous Flower True Fruit Only Half-Superior Ovary Perigynous Flower True + Accessory Fruit Inferior Ovary Epigynous Flower True + Accessory Fruit

7 Fruit Description: Fleshy Fruits Drupe: with pit Berry: with seeds
Berry: with seeds Pome: with core Example: peach Example: tomato Example: apple

8 The Cherry flower is: complete perfect hypogynous

9 The cherry fruit is a drupe with a both fleshy and pit wall layers.

10 What South American native is produced mostly in Africa?
Coffee fruits mature unevenly and so are hand-picked…by Juan Valdez? This leads to a social dilemma…to buy or to boycott or…? Coffea arabica - coffee Coffee originated in tropical Africa, but most of the crop is now grown in the South American tropics. Why? What South American native is produced mostly in Africa? Chocolate

11 These grapes are a classic berry.
What is the tiny scar on the end of each fruit? The location of the style attachment So is the ovary superior or inferior? Here is a berry from an inferior ovary! What is the difference between the flesh of the two berries shown here? True vs Accessory

12 Cucurbita female (pistillate, carpellate flower)
stigma vestigial androecium style inferior ovary fruit will have accessory pedicel

13 Are the flowers perfect or imperfect?
Is the pistil simple or compound? Is the ovary inferior or superior? Is the flower epigynous or hypogynous? accessory This is the true fruit. What is the rest of the tissue? Is the placenta axile, radial, or parietal? This is a seed or an ovule? What is this stalk? funiculus

14 Cucumis melo ovule/seed funiculus placenta true fruit parietal!
rind = accessory

15 The flowers of apple have a half-inferior (half-superior) ovary.
So the fruit is going to be partially an accessory fruit. The apple fruit is a pome, which has a cartilaginous core as the true fruit. The accessory is tasty! The bottom of the fruit shows the remains of the five styles and stigmata. There are also five triangular flaps that were the sepals,

16 Fruit Description: Dry Fruits Dehiscent Follicle-one side
Legume-two sides Capsule-multiple Example: milkweed Example: honey locust Example: hibiscus Dry Fruits Indehiscent Achene - cypsela Grain - caryopsis Nut with involucre Example: sunflower Example: corn Example: oak

17 Both Kapok and Milkweed have a fruit that splits along one side:
…a follicle. The seeds of both species have a fibrous pappus attached to the seeds. Kapok was used for filling floatation devices. In WW2, the US investigated using milkweed as a substitute to outfit the Navy. It was found unsuitable.

18 Here are two fruits, dry at maturity, and splitting along both sides of the fruit to shed seeds.
This makes the fruits legumes. The examples shown are lentil (left) and redbud (below).

19 Is this pistil simple or compound?
stigmata Papaver orientale- oriental poppy ovary wall Wounding this fruit causes latex to bleed out. This is collected as raw opium. Morphine and codeine can be extracted from this. Heroin is synthesized by reactions with morphine as starting material. stamen and petal scars sepal

20 Origin: Aggregate Fruit Composition: True + Accessory
Fragaria - Strawberry Origin: Aggregate Fruit Composition: True + Accessory flower hypogynous style + stigma superior ovary Descripton (true fruit!): Dry Indehiscent Achene

21 Fragaria early fruit development shows clearly the carpels of the flower becoming the true fruit…
stigma style superior ovary true fruit receptacle accessory to fruit

22 hypogynous flower chaff
Caryopsis - grain Nut! Cypsela The most important fruit on earth! oak, filbert (hazelnut), chestnut daisy family! rice, corn, wheat, etc. scar of epigynous flower scar of style stigma style ovary wall ovary wall inferior ovary wall embryo involucre pedicel scar hypogynous flower chaff pedicel scar

23 http://www. tropicamente
Theobroma cacao The ground-up interior of the seeds is used to make chocolate (after mixing with sugar and milk solids)

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