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Utah Flora BOT2100 Lecture 1 Floral Morphology Floral – reproductive parts of a plant Including: Inflorescence Flowers Fruits.

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Presentation on theme: "Utah Flora BOT2100 Lecture 1 Floral Morphology Floral – reproductive parts of a plant Including: Inflorescence Flowers Fruits."— Presentation transcript:

1 Utah Flora BOT2100 Lecture 1 Floral Morphology Floral – reproductive parts of a plant Including: Inflorescence Flowers Fruits

2 Utah Flora BOT2100 Perianth – the calyx and corolla of a flower, collectively Calyx – the outer whorl, all of the sepals of a flower Sepals – the segments of a calyx Corolla – the inner whorl, all of the petals of a flower Petals – the segments of a corolla, usually colored Floral Morphology

3 Utah Flora BOT2100 Calyx Sepals Corolla Petals Sepals Floral Morphology

4 Utah Flora BOT2100 tepals – the segment of a perianth which is not differentiated into a sepal or a petal apetalous – without petals Floral Morphology

5 Utah Flora BOT2100 Floral Morphology Regular –radially symmetrical Actinomorphic – another term that means: radially symmetrical Free – separate, not attached Distinct – another term that means: separate, not attached Petals 5-merous

6 Utah Flora BOT2100 Floral Morphology Regular –radially symmetrical Fused – fusion of like parts Connate – another term that means: fusion of like parts Petals 5-lobed

7 Utah Flora BOT2100 Floral Morphology Irregular – billaterally symmetrical Zygomorphic – another term that means: billaterally symmetrical Fused – fusion of like parts Petals 5-lobed 2- lipped

8 Utah Flora BOT2100 Floral Morphology Irregular Zygomorphic Fused Petals 5-lobed 2- lipped

9 Utah Flora BOT2100 Floral Morphology Irregular Zygomorphic Free Papilionaceous – irregular corolla of a pea, with a free banner, two free wing petals, and two fused keel petals

10 Utah Flora BOT2100 Androecium – all of the stamens in a flower, collectively Stamens – the male reproductive organ of a flower Anther – the expanded, apical, pollen bearing portion of the stamen Filament – the stalk of the stamen Floral Morphology

11 Utah Flora BOT2100 Floral Morphology Androecium – all of the stamens in a flower, collectively Stamens – the male reproductive organ of a flower stamens more than twice the number of the petals stamens 10, or exactly twice the number of petals

12 Utah Flora BOT2100 Staminode – a modified stamen which is sterile Floral Morphology Stamens less than twice the number of the petals (or lobes) Stamens 4, Staminode 1 Stamens Staminode

13 Utah Flora BOT2100 Floral Morphology Gynoecium – all of the pistils in a flower, collectively Pistil – the female reproductive organ of a flower Stigma– the apical portion of the pistil which is receptive to pollen Style – the narrowed portion of the pistil Ovary – the basal portion of the pistil that contains ovules (seeds)

14 Utah Flora BOT2100 Carpels – a leaf modified into a pistil, another term for the stigma, style, and ovary of a plant Monocarpous – a flower with one carpel (or pistil) Apocarpous – a flower with two or more separate carpels (or pistils) Syncarpous – a flowers with two or more fused carpels (or pistils) Floral Morphology

15 Utah Flora BOT2100 Floral Morphology Superior – flowers with the stamens, petals, and sepals attached below the ovary Hypogynous – an alternate term for superior Inferior – flowers with the ovary beneath the point of attachment of the stamens, petals and sepals Epigynous – an alternate term for inferior Perigynous – flowers with the stamens, petals and sepals borne on a calyx tube (hypanthium) surrounding but not fused to the superior ovary Hypanthium – a cup shaped expansion of the floral axis formed from the union of the basal parts of the calyx and corolla

16 Utah Flora BOT2100 Superior Inferior Hypanthium (purple region) Floral Morphology red parts are the calyx (sepals) purple parts are the corolla (petals) yellow parts are anther green parts are ovaries

17 Utah Flora BOT2100 Inflorescence Complete – a flower with all of the typical parts: sepals, petals, stamens and pistils. Perfect – a flower with both female (pistils) and male (stamens) reproductive organs

18 Utah Flora BOT2100 incomplete – a flower lacking one or more of the typical parts: sepals, petals, stamens and pistils. imperfect – a flower with either stamens or pistils, but not both unisexual – alternate term for imperfect pistillate – a flower with pistils and lacking stamens dioecious – a plant with imperfect flowers, the staminate and pistillate flowers borne on separate plants

19 Floral Morphology Utah Flora BOT2100 incomplete imperfect unisexual dioecious staminate– a flower with stamens and lacking pistils

20 Floral Morphology Utah Flora BOT2100 incomplete imperfect unisexual monoecious – a plant with imperfect flowers, the staminate and pistillate flowers borne on the same plant pistillate staminate

21 Inflorescence flowering part of a plant, collectively a cluster of flowers the arrangement of the flowers on the flowering axis Utah Flora BOT2100

22 Inflorescence Rachis – the main axis of an inflorescence Pedicel – the stalk of a single flower in an inflorescence Pedicillate – a flower with a pedicel Peduncle – the stalk of a solitary flower or the stalk of an inflorescence Pedunculate – a inflorescence with a peduncle Sessile – This plant has sessile flowers with a pedunculate inflorescence. Each inflorescence has a rachis.

23 Utah Flora BOT2100 Inflorescence Terminal – a flower at the tip or apex This plant has solitary, pedunculate flowers. Each flower is terminal.

24 Utah Flora BOT2100 Inflorescence Bracts – a reduced leaf at the base of a flower or inflorescence Axillary – a flower arising in the axil of a leaf This plant has bracteate, sessile flowers This plant has axillary, pedicillate flowers

25 Inflorescence Utah Flora BOT2100 Solitary – an inflorescence with a single flower

26 Inflorescence Utah Flora BOT2100 Spike – an unbranched, elongate inflorescence with sessile flowers Spicate – a plant with a flowers arranged in a spike

27 Utah Flora BOT2100 Inflorescence Raceme – an unbranched, elongate inflorescence with pedicillate flowers Racemose – a plant with a flowers arranged in a raceme

28 Inflorescence Utah Flora BOT2100 Panicle – an branched, racemose inflorescence Paniculate – a plant with a flowers arranged in a panicle panicles can remembered as: a raceme of racemes

29 Inflorescence Utah Flora BOT2100 Umbel – an inflorescence with the pedicels arising from a more or less common point, like an umbrella Compound Umbel – an umbel of umbels Umbellate – a plant with a flowers arranged in a umbel flat, compound umbel rounded, compound umbel

30 Inflorescence Utah Flora BOT2100 Cyme – a flat-topped (or rounded) inflorescence in which the terminal flower blooms first Cymose – a plant with a flowers arranged in a cyme This is a raceme of cymes, several cymes are located at each node of the inflorescence

31 Inflorescence Utah Flora BOT2100 Scorpioid cyme – an inflorescence shaped like a scorpions tail in which the terminal flower blooms first and the axis elongates in a zig-zag fashion terminal not terminal, this can keep expanding

32 Utah Flora BOT2100 Inflorescence Capitate or Head-shaped – a dense, many-flowered inflorescence, generally terminal Verticel – a dense, many-flowered inflorescence at a node, whorled capitate verticels

33 Utah Flora BOT2100 ray flowers disk many flowers Composite, Involucrate a many flowered head ray phyllary (each leaf-like bract) involucre (not a calyx) receptacle (inside involucre) Inflorescence

34 Fruit Utah Flora BOT2100 Legume – a dry, dehiscent fruit derived from a single carpel, opening along two lines of dehiscence Loment – a legume with constrictions between the seeds, sometimes breaking into 1 seeded segments Follicles – a dry, dehiscent fruit derived from a single carpel and opening along a single line Capsule – a dry, dehiscent fruit derived of more than one carpel Silique – a dry, dehiscent fruit in Brassicaceae, less than twice as long as wide (circular) Silicle – – a dry, dehiscent fruit in Brassicaceae, more than twice as long as wide (tubular)

35 Fruit Utah Flora BOT2100 Achene – a dry, indehiscent fruit derived from a single carpel with a single seed attached to the ovary wall at a single point (sunflower) Caryopsis – a dry, indehiscent fruit derived from a single carpel with a single seed fused to the ovary wall (cereal grains) Samara – a dry, indehiscent fruit with wings Nut – a dry, hard, indehiscent fruit with a single seed Nutlet – a dry, hard, indehiscent fruit with a 2 to 4, one-seeded lobes Schizocarp – a dry, hard, indehiscent fruit which plits into 2 to many, one-seeded segments

36 Fruit Utah Flora BOT2100 Berry – a fleshy fruit derived from a single carpel with many seeds (tomato) Drupe – a fleshy, indehiscent fruit derived from a single carpel with one hard central seed (called a stone; peaches, cherries) Pome – a fleshy, indehiscent fruit derived from an inferior ovary composed of many fused carpels (apple) Aggregate – a fleshy fruit derived from multiple, separate carpels in a single flower (raspberry) Multiple – a compound fruit formed from many, separate flowers crowded along a central axis (pineapple) Cone – called a strobilis, or cone-like cluster of seed-bearing bracts crowded along a central axis (sometimes woody; pine cones)

37 Utah Flora BOT2100 Assignment Draw and label all flower and fruit samples provided in lab Make sure to label the peduncle, pedicel, corolla, petals, calyx, sepals, phyllaries, ray flowers, disk flowers, stamens, stigma (not all may have these features readily visible or present) Identify whether the flower is solitary, a raceme, a spike, a panicle, a cyme, or an involucre Identify whether the fruit is a cone, a legume, a samara, or a capsule (the 4 types we have for examples) Split open the Penstemon flower and illustrate the stamens, filaments, staminode, stigma, style, ovary, corolla, and calyx See Harris & Harris for floral diagrams


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