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Flowers, Inflorescences & Fruits. Floral characteristics are the most commonly features to identify plants Much more reliable than vegetative characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "Flowers, Inflorescences & Fruits. Floral characteristics are the most commonly features to identify plants Much more reliable than vegetative characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flowers, Inflorescences & Fruits

2 Floral characteristics are the most commonly features to identify plants Much more reliable than vegetative characteristics Flowers, Inflorescence & Fruits

3 Flower A typical flower is a stem tip bearing two whorls of appendages that are sterile and two that are fertile All four whorls are considered to be modified leaves

4 Typical flower – 4 main parts Flower

5 Sterile parts – Sepals: protect flower bud All sepals called calyx – Petals: pretty parts that attract pollinators All petals called corolla – Calyx and corolla make up the perianth Flower

6 Fertile parts – Stamens Male reproductive structures – Anther – Filaments – All stamens called androecium Flower

7 Fertile parts – Carpel Stigma Style Ovary – All carpels called the gynoecium Flower

8 Presence or Absence of Parts Terms Applied to Individual Flowers Complete: has all the floral parts – Sepals – Petals – Stamens – Carpels

9 Incomplete: missing one of more of the floral parts Presence or Absence of Parts Terms Applied to Individual Flowers Ginger flower missing petals

10 Perfect (=bisexual): flower with both stamens and carpels Presence or Absence of Parts Terms Applied to Individual Flowers Grape flower with stamens and carpels

11 Presence or Absence of Parts Terms Applied to Individual Flowers Imperfect (=unisexual): missing stamens or carpels, but not both

12 Staminate (=male): unisexual flower with just stamens present Presence or Absence of Parts Terms Applied to Individual Flowers Imperfect staminate flower; stamens only, no carples

13 Carpellate (=female): unisexual flower just carpels present Presence or Absence of Parts Terms Applied to Individual Flowers Imperfect carpellate flower; carpel only; no stamens

14 Monoecious: any plant that has both staminate and carpellate flowers Presence or Absence of Parts Terms Applied to Plants with Imperfect Flowers

15 Dioecious: plant that has either staminate flowers or carpellate flowers, but not both Presence or Absence of Parts Terms Applied to Plants with Imperfect Flowers

16 The position of the gynoecium in relation to all the other floral parts is the basis for for the terminology used in keys and taxonomic descriptions Insertion of Floral Parts

17 Hypogynous: the sepals, petals, and stamens are inserted under the carpel – Ovary is said to be superior Insertion of Floral Parts

18 In a perigynous flower, the sepal, petals, and stamens are fused together to form a cup called the hypanthium – The gynoecium sits inside the cup but is not fused to it – Ovary is said to be superior Insertion of Floral Parts

19 In a epigynousflower, the sepals, petals, and stamens arise from a point above the ovary – Ovary is said to be inferior Insertion of Floral Parts

20 Floral Symmetry Actinomorphic (=radial): cutting the flower in any pane produces a mirror image

21 Zygomorphic (=bilateral): can cut the flower in only one plane to get a mirror image Floral Symmetry

22 Inflorescence Types An inflorescence is an arrangement of one or more flowers on a floral axis

23 Inflorescence type determined by: – Number of flowers – Positional relationships – Degree of the development of their pedicels – Nature of their branching pattern Inflorescence Types

24 Terminal: flower at the tip of a stem Simple Inflorescences Scarlet rose-mallow (Hibiscus coccineus)

25 Compound Inflorescences Two or more flowers per inflorescence

26 Spike: elongate inflorescence; flowers are sessile, dense, or remote from one another Compound Inflorescences Spiked blazing star (Liatris spicata)

27 Catkin: a pendant or erect inflorescence in which unisexual flowers lack petals and are hidden by scaly bracts Compound Inflorescences

28 Raceme: an elongate inflorescence of pedicellate flowers on an unbranched rachis Compound Inflorescences

29 Umbel: a flat-topped or somewhat rounded inflorescence in which all of the pedicels arise from a common point at the tip of the peduncle Compound Inflorescences Butterfly weed (Asclepias sp.)

30 Corymb: a flat-topped or somewhat rounded inflorescence in which the pedicels of varying length are inserted along the rachis Compound Inflorescences

31 Panicle: a much- branched inflorescence with a central rachis which bears branches which are themselves branched Compound Inflorescences

32 Ripened or mature ovary Contains seeds Fruits

33 Fruit Types Dry fruits – Indehiscent – Dehiscent Fleshy fruits – True fruits – False fruits

34 Achene Fruit Types Dry, Indehiscent Sunflower (Helianthus sp.)

35 Caryopsis (=grain) Fruit Types Dry, Indehiscent

36 Samara Fruit Types Dry, Indehiscent Maple (Acer sp.)

37 Schizocarp Fruit Types Dry, Indehiscent

38 Capsule Fruit Types Dry, Dehiscent Mexican buckeye (Ungnadia speciosa)

39 Silique Fruit Types Dry, Dehiscent

40 Legume Fruit Types Dry, Dehiscent

41 Loment Fruit Types Dry, Dehiscent

42 Follicle Fruit Types Dry, Dehiscent

43 Fleshy Fruits True Fruits Derived from a gynoecium of a single flower

44 Drupe Fleshy Fruits True Fruits

45 Berry Fleshy Fruits True Fruits

46 Pepo Fleshy Fruits True Fruits Stink gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima)

47 Pome Fleshy Fruits True Fruits

48 Hesperidium Fleshy Fruits True Fruits

49 Fruit derived from parts other than the gynoecium Fleshy Fruits False Fruits

50 Accessory: fruit from the receptacle Fleshy Fruits False Fruits

51 Aggregate: fruit formed from many separate flowers Fleshy Fruits False Fruits Magnolia (Magnolia sp.)

52 Multiple: fruits formed by the fusion of an entire inflorescence Fleshy Fruits False Fruits

53 Syconium: a hollow, vase-like inflorescence with the flowers lining the inside Fleshy Fruits False Fruits

54 BREAK


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