Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 5 Interaction, Groups, and Organizations: Connections That Work © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Interaction, Groups, and Organizations: Connections That Work © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Interaction, Groups, and Organizations: Connections That Work © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

2 Social networks: sets of relationships between individuals, groups, and/or organizations Micro-, meso-, and macro-level networks: Friends and family Local civic, sports, and religious organizations Alumni groups, political parties, subcultures The nation Global entities Today the internet influences our networks Networks & Connections

3 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Networks connect us to society and place us within larger social structures Networks can create opportunities for their members, but also generate obligations that limit members’ freedom Individuals’ access to networks differs by their gender and other characteristics Differences in access to opportunity-enhancing networks are one reason for persistent inequality Networks & Connections

4 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Social interaction consists of two or more individuals purposefully relating to each other Interaction creates micro-level connections All interaction has three components: An action A common goal A social context governed by norms The action, goal, and context help us interpret the meaning of the interaction The Process of Interaction

5 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., People assume that others will share their interpretations of a situation Shared interpretations include situational norms, which create cues for appropriate behavior Dress Manner Actions Communication (verbal and non-verbal) Interaction norms and expectations are learned through socialization The Elements of Social Interaction

6 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Interaction includes verbal and non-verbal communication Non-verbal communication: interactions using facial expressions, the head, eye contact, body posture, gestures, touch, walk, status symbols, and personal space Non-verbal communication are: Culturally specific Learned through socialization Used in all cultures The Elements of Social Interaction

7 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Personal space: an example of non-verbal communication The amount of personal space people need varies by: Cultural setting Gender Status Social context Personal space communicates social positions People in higher positions have greater control of physical space Gender differences The Elements of Social Interaction

8 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Categories of Social Distance in the U.S. Intimate distance (0-18 inches) Private and affectionate relationships Personal distance (18 inches - 4 feet) Friends and acquaintances Social distance (4-12 feet) Impersonal business relations Public distance (12 feet or more) Public speaking, especially in formal settings or with high-status speakers The Elements of Social Interaction

9 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Rational Choice Theory (or Exchange Theory) Relationships are formed and maintained based on individual rewards and costs An interaction is sustained when its benefits are high and costs are low Assumes that our choices about interaction: Are based on calculations of self-interest (current or eventual payoff) Are guided by reason Involve expectations of reciprocity (individual contributions will balance out over time) Interaction: Theoretical Perspectives

10 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Symbolic Interaction Theory Focuses on how people interpret interactions and manipulate others’ interpretations Two variations Ethnomethodology Dramaturgy Interaction: Theoretical Perspectives

11 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Symbolic Interaction Theory Ethnomethodology Focuses on the most basic norms governing interaction Norms are not taken for granted, but studied empirically Research is often carried out by violating norms and observing people’s reactions Research shows how people develop shared meanings and rules Interaction: Theoretical Perspectives

12 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Symbolic Interaction Theory Dramaturgy Analyzes interaction as if it were a staged play with audiences, parts, scripts, props, and settings We perform different parts for different audiences We learn parts and scripts through socialization “Impression management”: we attempt to convey a positive, advantageous image of ourselves “Front stage” behavior: public, scripted, presents an image we hope others will take as real “Back stage” behavior: we relax, let feelings show Interaction: Theoretical Perspectives

13 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Social statuses: positions that individuals hold in the social world Statuses define how we interact with others Interaction differs according to whether participants are of equal or unequal status Status set: an individual’s combination of statuses Ascribed status: a status that is assigned at birth and does not change during an individual’s lifetime Achieved status: a status that is chosen or earned by decisions one makes or by personal ability Master status: a person’s most important status, that takes precedence over other statuses Social Status: The Link to Groups

14 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Social Status: The Link to Groups

15 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Roles: the expected behaviors, rights and obligations associated with a status Role behaviors are part of our culture, learned through socialization Roles and statuses link us to others in the social world Expectations for a particular status depend on the statuses of those the individual is interacting with Statuses can be formal or informal Statuses connect us to meso- and macro-level organizations The Relationship Between Status and Role

16 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Role strain: tension between roles within one status Role conflict: conflict between the roles of two or more statuses Role Strain and Role Conflict

17 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Group: two or more people who interact with each other because of shared interests, goals, experiences, and needs Members have a sense of belonging Membership is well-defined There are rules for members’ behavior (Not all collections of people are groups!) Groups form through a series of steps: Initial interaction Emergence of a collective goal Attempts to expand collective goals Groups: The Micro-Meso Connection

18 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Durkheim’s study of suicide Showed how groups impact individual behavior by comparing different groups’ suicide rates Group conditions leading to suicide: Anomie – the group lacks norms or rules Egoism – bonds tying individuals to the group are too weak Altruism – bonds tying individuals to the group are too strong The Importance of Groups for the Individual

19 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Primary groups: Close, personal relationships Sense of belonging, caring, identity, loyalty Strong influence on behavior Small membership, lasting relationships Have intrinsic value: belonging is the goal Secondary groups: Formal, impersonal, businesslike relationships Exist to accomplish a task or goal Specialized tasks and communication Large membership; may be short or long-term Types of Groups

20 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Reference group: members act as role models for one another and establish standards against which members measure their conduct In-group: members feel a sense of loyalty and belonging; often a reference and/or a primary group Out-group: a group that exists in competition with or opposition to an in-group Types of Groups

21 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Organization and Bureaucracies

22 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Modern organizations: formal, rational, bureaucratic; originated during industrialization in the 1700s Formal organizations: complex secondary groups formed to pursue and achieve certain goals Rationality: the attempt to reach maximum efficiency Bureaucracy: a specific type of large, formal organization that attempts to maximize efficiency by establishing formal relations, clear procedures, and stated goals (Contrast: traditional organizations are run on the basis of custom or whim) The Evolution of Modern Organizations

23 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Organizational societies: societies in which a majority of people work in organizations McDonaldization of society: increasing dominance of organizations characterized by Efficiency maximized by sameness Predictability, nothing left to chance Calculation of everything Increased control over customers and employees Does McDonaldization lead to dehumanization? The Evolution of Modern Organizations

24 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Max Weber Studied growth of bureaucracy in the 20 th century Developed “ideal types,” or conceptual models Ideal type bureaucracy characteristics: Division of labor based on technical competence Administrative hierarchy Formal rules and regulations Impersonal relationships Emphasis on rationality and efficiency Provision of life-long careers Bureaucracies also have an informal structure, unwritten rules and relationships Characteristics of Bureaucracy

25 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Some categories of people face special challenges in bureaucracies: Professionals may face conflicting loyalties to their profession and to the bureaucratic organization Members of minority groups, such as ethnic minorities or women, may have little opportunity to reach the highest levels (Nonetheless, both groups make important contributions to bureaucracies.) Individuals in Bureaucracies

26 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Problems of bureaucracies Alienation: workers with boring, dead-end jobs feel uninvolved, uncommitted, unappreciated Oligarchy: concentration of power in a small group The iron law of oligarchy Goal displacement: original purposes are displaced by new, secondary goals Parkinson’s law: work expands to fill the time available, creating inefficiencies Alternative organizational structures Employee-owned organizations Democratic-collective organizations Problems in Bureaucracies

27 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., National & Global Networks New transportation and communication systems, including the internet, are generating global networks Multinational corporations make their own rules, without oversight bodies National and international organizations are governed through rational, bureaucratic systems Some groups rebel against these structures, resulting in global conflicts The Macro-Level

28 © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., Around the world, women are central to economic and social life, but are also marginalized and impoverished At the macro-level, the United Nations has created many policies to help raise the status of women worldwide Education initiatives Micro-lending agencies Policy Issues: Women and Globalization


Download ppt "Chapter 5 Interaction, Groups, and Organizations: Connections That Work © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google