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17.471 American National Security Policy 1 National Security Policy: 1950-1952.

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Presentation on theme: "17.471 American National Security Policy 1 National Security Policy: 1950-1952."— Presentation transcript:

1 American National Security Policy 1 National Security Policy:

2 American National Security Policy 2 Review: oDominant Threat Economy oNational Security Strategy Military demobilization Economic aid to threatened interests oTruman Doctrine Political-economic containment of communism

3 American National Security Policy 3 Entering the 1950s oBerlin Crisis first serious Military Confrontation between US & USSR Military Forces oSoviet A Bomb oCommunism in China oEastern Europe Solidifying in Communism oColonial Empires Continue to Crumble oNew technology of A-Bomb/H Bomb better appreciated

4 American National Security Policy 4 National Security issues oHardening of the 2 blocs West v. East oAvoiding war while defending vital interests oRebuilding American military power in wake of public apathy

5 American National Security Policy 5 NSC-68 Militarizing U.S. National Security Policy

6 American National Security Policy 6 Origins of NSC-68 oWhy was NSC-68 commissioned? Need for a comprehensive assessment of national security policy Belief that US was not doing enough to counter Soviet threat Belief that economic constraints on US national security were too great

7 American National Security Policy 7 Origins of NSC-68 oWhere did NSC-68 come from? oWhat would the bureaucratic model of policy making predict in this case? What actually happened? Why?

8 American National Security Policy 8 How Did NSC-68 Portray the US National Security Environment? oThreat to US VITAL INTERESTS In EUROPE Secondarily Mediterranean and Middle East No mention of Asia oSoviet Communism expanding via military power Soviets: divisions (~12,000 men each) o could be doubled in a few months NATO: 7 divisions oSoviet nuclear capability H-bomb program (test in 1953) US INTELL Forecasts 1954 as Year of Maximum Danger of USSR attack oRisk of surprise attack

9 American National Security Policy 9 How Did NSC-68 Portray the US National Security Environment? oMilitary Capabilities matter & Military power disparities matter US needs to stay more powerful than USSR oPsychological insecurity countries falling under Soviet control like dominoes if everything is not defended oPerceptions of balance of power as important as actual balance of power

10 American National Security Policy 10 What did NSC-68 Prescribe? oRemilitarization of U.S. National Security Policy $40 billion/year for 10 years Mix of offensive forces, air defense forces, civil defense oInternal security oUS government spending on defense would stimulate economy and pay for itself

11 American National Security Policy 11 How did National Security Thinking Differ from the Proceeding Period? oMilitary power replaces economic and political power as basis for U.S. national security policy oKennans strong point defense replaced by total perimeter defense concept

12 American National Security Policy 12 How did National Security Thinking Differ from the Proceeding Period? oUS Interests are Whatever Soviets Threaten EVERYTHING, therefore, becomes a manifestation of a VITAL interest that the Soviets Challenge! Cedes control of US Nat Sec policy to USSR o JCS oppose perimeter defense – believe US Does not have strength to fight everywhere; State Dept./NSC-68 push for perimeter defense Opposite bureaucratic model?

13 American National Security Policy 13 Korean War

14 American National Security Policy 14 Korean War oUS providing $60-$100 million for S. Korea defense To protect Japan (vital interest) oJune 25, 1950 N. Korean troops cross 38th Parallel Is this the Real War? oUS assumes Soviet Union initiated proxy war Is it a trap to lure US forces from Europe? Is it to push US to waste nuclear weapons? oSoviet Security Council walkout UN (US) Intervention

15 American National Security Policy 15 Korean War

16 American National Security Policy 16 China Enters the Korean War oInitial US Goal : restore 38th Parallel Following Military Success Changes to Freeing Korea oProvoking Chinas Entry : Why did we fail to Deter China? Deterrence failure 1 million Chinese troops cross the Yalu River oUS mobilization in first year of war 650,000 reservists & national guard 585,000 drafted oDeployment : ~ 250,000 – 300,000 by 1953

17 American National Security Policy 17 Korean War Issue oDeterrence in national security policy olimiting war & crisis control ocivil military relations

18 American National Security Policy 18 Events o1950 : NSC-68 o1950 : U.S. H-bomb program o1950 : USSR-PRC Friendship Treaty o1950 : Korean War o1951 : ANZUS Treaty o1951 : Project Charles

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