Presentation on theme: "LS- WHO. ■Essential Question ■Essential Question: –What led to the Cold War between the United States & the Soviet Union? ■Warm-Up Question ■Warm-Up Question:"— Presentation transcript:
■Essential Question ■Essential Question: –What led to the Cold War between the United States & the Soviet Union? ■Warm-Up Question ■Warm-Up Question: –Examine the image on the next slide & use it to answer this Q: –What was the Cold War?
Use this image to search for clues What was the Cold War?
The USA after World War II ■The end of WWII in 1945, marked a turning point in U.S. history by taking an active role in world affairs –The USA became a leader in the United Nations & World Bank –The U.S. occupied & helped rebuild Japan after the war –The U.S. helped found Israel as a Jewish nation in the Middle East
United Nations Member Nations United Nations Headquarters is in New York City
American Occupation of Japan
The Cold War ■The most important change in U.S. foreign policy after WWII was the beginning of the Cold War –The Cold War was an era of distrust & hostility between the USA & USSR from –It was an era of competing ideologies: The USA promoted democracy & capitalism while the USSR tried to spread communism
Causes of the Cold War Vladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution in 1917 The USA sent troops to fight the “Red Army” during the Russian Civil War In the 1920s, Americans feared the spread of Communism during the “Red Scare” After Lenin’s death in 1924, Joseph Stalin became dictator of the USSR & started his Five Year Plans During WWII, the USA & USSR worked together to defeat the Axis Powers, but...
■WWII increased hostilities between the USA & the USSR: –The U.S. & USSR emerged from the war as rival superpowers –The development of the atomic bomb gave the USA a monopoly on nuclear weapons Causes of the Cold War
WWII increased hostilities between USA & USSR At the Yalta Conference, Stalin agreed to allow self-determination in Eastern Europe But Stalin never did; By the time of the Potsdam Conference, Stalin began extending his control over Eastern Europe Stalin refused to remove his military or allow free election in Eastern Europe As a result, Eastern European nations turned to Communism & became Soviet satellites—nations influenced by the USSR (the “Eastern bloc”)
At the end of the war, Germany was divided into a zone occupied by the USSR (which became East Germany) & a zone occupied by the USA, Britain, & France (West Germany)
Capitalism & Democracy Communism & Totalitarianism The Iron Curtain The USA began to view Stalin in the 1940s as a new Hitler—a dangerous dictator who wanted to take over the world
In 1947, the U.S. began a policy of Containment to stop the spread of Communism by the USSR “A long-term, patient but firm, and vigilant containment of Russian expansionist policies… will eventually force the USSR to live in peace with the West” —Secretary of State, George Marshall When the USSR began pressuring Greece & Turkey to turn communist, the USA created the Truman Doctrine: U.S. economic & military aid to any country threatened by communism The Truman Doctrine worked & neither Greece nor Turkey fell to communism
In 1947, the U.S. began a policy of Containment to stop the spread of Communism by the USSR European nations had difficulty recovering after WWII which led to fears of communism in Europe The U.S. created the Marshall Plan: offered $13 billion to help rebuild post-war Europe By 1952, Western Europe recovered & Communism never took root
Marshall Plan to Aid Europe
In 1947, the U.S. began a policy of Containment to stop the spread of Communism by the USSR In 1948, the USSR used military force to turn Czechoslovakia to communism; This led to fears that Stalin would use similar tactics in Western Europe In 1949, the USA formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): a military alliance among democratic countries
NATO Communist Bloc NATO was one of many alliances the USA would form with democratic nations over the course of the Cold War
The Berlin Blockade ■In 1948, the USSR responded to Containment by cutting off all traffic to Berlin in East Germany –The USA began the Berlin Airlift to bring food, fuel, & supplies to keep West Berlin from turning to Communism –The standoff lasted 2 weeks until Stalin lifted the blockade
Reorganizing the Government ■By 1947, the U.S. gov’t created 3 new agencies during the Cold War –Dept of Defense –Dept of Defense to direct the Army & Navy; The military created the Air Force –Central Intelligence Agency –Central Intelligence Agency to collect & manage information among all gov’t agencies –Nat’l Security Council –Nat’l Security Council to advise the president on nat’l security The new air force was the preferred military agency of the Cold War because airplanes could drop nuclear bombs if needed
The Cold War Expands
The Nuclear Arms Race The U.S. monopoly on nuclear weapons technology ended in 1949 when the USSR successfully tested their own atomic bomb The Soviet atomic bomb motivated the USA to regain its nuclear advantage; In 1952, the U.S. tested the 1 st hydrogen bomb (1,000 times more powerful than the a-bomb) The Soviets responded with their own hydrogen bomb in 1953
The Cold War in Asia ■Containment stopped communism in Europe, but by the late 1940s the Cold War spread to Asia: –Since the 1930s, Communist Mao Zedong fought democratic leaders for control of China –In 1949, Mao gained control & turned China to communism –Americans blamed President Truman for “losing China”
Based upon this chart, why were Mao & the Communists so popular among the Chinese people?
The Cold War in Asia ■America’s response to the fall of China was to more aggressively confront Communism in the world –The U.S. expanded the military & stockpiled nuclear weapons –The USA feared that China would influence its neighbors to turn communist (“domino theory”) –In 1950, the U.S. fought the Korean War to stop communism
After WWII, Korea was divided along the 38° with Communists in the North & democracy in the South In 1950, North Korea crossed the 38° & attacked South Korea The USA led a United Nations intervention to stop North Korea But, when the USA pushed too close to China, the Chinese Army entered the war & helped North Korea By 1953, a ceasefire stopped the fighting & the 38° was restored as the boundary between North & South Koreas
The USA stopped the spread of Communism into South Korea, but in 1954, Communist Ho Chi Minh began a war to gain independence for Vietnam
Conclusions ■After World War II, U.S. foreign policy changed: –The U.S. became a superpower that actively intervened in world affairs –The Cold War increased military spending, nuclear weapons, & fears of a war with the USSR –President Truman successfully “contained” Communism in Europe but seemed to fail in Asia