2Essential Question:What led to the Cold War between the United States & the Soviet Union?Warm-Up Question:Examine the image on the next slide & use it to answer this Q:What was the Cold War?
3Use this image to search for clues What was the Cold War?
4The USA after World War II The end of WWII in 1945, marked a turning point in U.S. history by taking an active role in world affairsThe USA became a leader in the United Nations & World BankThe U.S. occupied & helped rebuild Japan after the warThe U.S. helped found Israel as a Jewish nation in the Middle East
5United Nations Member Nations United Nations Headquarters is in New York City
8The Cold WarThe most important change in U.S. foreign policy after WWII was the beginning of the Cold WarThe Cold War was an era of distrust & hostility between the USA & USSR fromIt was an era of competing ideologies: The USA promoted democracy & capitalism while the USSR tried to spread communism
10Vladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution in 1917 Causes of the Cold WarDuring WWII, the USA & USSR worked together to defeat the Axis Powers, but...In the 1920s, Americans feared the spread of Communism during the “Red Scare”The USA sent troops to fight the “Red Army” during the Russian Civil WarAfter Lenin’s death in 1924, Joseph Stalin became dictator of the USSR & started his Five Year PlansVladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution in 1917
11Causes of the Cold WarWWII increased hostilities between the USA & the USSR:The U.S. & USSR emerged from the war as rival superpowersThe development of the atomic bomb gave the USA a monopoly on nuclear weapons
12WWII increased hostilities between USA & USSR But Stalin never did; By the time of the Potsdam Conference, Stalin began extending his control over Eastern EuropeAt the Yalta Conference, Stalin agreed to allow self-determination in Eastern EuropeStalin refused to remove his military or allow free election in Eastern EuropeAs a result, Eastern European nations turned to Communism & became Soviet satellites—nations influenced by the USSR (the “Eastern bloc”)
13At the end of the war, Germany was divided into a zone occupied by the USSR (which became East Germany) & a zone occupied by the USA, Britain, & France (West Germany)
15Capitalism & Democracy The Iron CurtainCapitalism & DemocracyCommunism & TotalitarianismThe USA began to view Stalin in the 1940s as a new Hitler—a dangerous dictator who wanted to take over the world
16In 1947, the U.S. began a policy of Containment to stop the spread of Communism by the USSR When the USSR began pressuring Greece & Turkey to turn communist, the USA created the Truman Doctrine: U.S. economic & military aid to any country threatened by communism“A long-term, patient but firm, and vigilant containment of Russian expansionist policies… will eventually force the USSR to live in peace with the West”—Secretary of State, George MarshallThe Truman Doctrine worked & neither Greece nor Turkey fell to communism
17Congress appropriated $400 million in aid to Greece & Turkey
18By 1952, Western Europe recovered & Communism never took root In 1947, the U.S. began a policy of Containment to stop the spread of Communism by the USSREuropean nations had difficulty recovering after WWII which led to fears of communism in EuropeThe U.S. created the Marshall Plan: offered $13 billion to help rebuild post-war EuropeBy 1952, Western Europe recovered & Communism never took root
20In 1947, the U.S. began a policy of Containment to stop the spread of Communism by the USSR In 1948, the USSR used military force to turn Czechoslovakia to communism; This led to fears that Stalin would use similar tactics in Western EuropeIn 1949, the USA formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): a military alliance among democratic countries
21NATO was one of many alliances the USA would form with democratic nations over the course of the Cold WarNATOCommunist Bloc
22The Berlin BlockadeIn 1948, the USSR responded to Containment by cutting off all traffic to Berlin in East GermanyThe USA began the Berlin Airlift to bring food, fuel, & supplies to keep West Berlin from turning to CommunismThe standoff lasted 2 weeks until Stalin lifted the blockade
24Reorganizing the Government The new air force was the preferred military agency of the Cold War because airplanes could drop nuclear bombs if neededBy 1947, the U.S. gov’t created 3 new agencies during the Cold WarDept of Defense to direct the Army & Navy; The military created the Air ForceCentral Intelligence Agency to collect & manage information among all gov’t agenciesNat’l Security Council to advise the president on nat’l security
26The Soviets responded with their own hydrogen bomb in 1953 The Nuclear Arms RaceThe Soviet atomic bomb motivated the USA to regain its nuclear advantage; In 1952, the U.S. tested the 1st hydrogen bomb (1,000 times more powerful than the a-bomb)The U.S. monopoly on nuclear weapons technology ended in 1949 when the USSR successfully tested their own atomic bombThe Soviets responded with their own hydrogen bomb in 1953
27The Cold War in AsiaContainment stopped communism in Europe, but by the late 1940s the Cold War spread to Asia:Since the 1930s, Communist Mao Zedong fought democratic leaders for control of ChinaIn 1949, Mao gained control & turned China to communismAmericans blamed President Truman for “losing China”Truman “lost” China after a
28Based upon this chart, why were Mao & the Communists so popular among the Chinese people?
29The Cold War in AsiaAmerica’s response to the fall of China was to more aggressively confront Communism in the worldThe U.S. expanded the military & stockpiled nuclear weaponsThe USA feared that China would influence its neighbors to turn communist (“domino theory”)In 1950, the U.S. fought the Korean War to stop communism
30In 1950, North Korea crossed the 38° & attacked South Korea The USA led a United Nations intervention to stop North KoreaBut, when the USA pushed too close to China, the Chinese Army entered the war & helped North KoreaBy 1953, a ceasefire stopped the fighting & the 38° was restored as the boundary between North & South KoreasAfter WWII, Korea was divided along the 38° with Communists in the North & democracy in the South
31The USA stopped the spread of Communism into South Korea, but in 1954, Communist Ho Chi Minh began a war to gain independence for Vietnam
32Conclusions After World War II, U.S. foreign policy changed: The U.S. became a superpower that actively intervened in world affairsThe Cold War increased military spending, nuclear weapons, & fears of a war with the USSRPresident Truman successfully “contained” Communism in Europe but seemed to fail in Asia