Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 The Cold War Begins"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 26 The Cold War Begins Section 2The Early Cold War Years
2Containing CommunismFebruary 22, 1946, diplomat George Kennan wrote the Long Telegram, a 5,540 word cable message explaining his views of Soviet goals.
3The Long TelegramKennan discussed Russian insecurity and fear of the West and why it was impossible to reach an agreement.Proposed long-term containment of Russian expansion.This led to Truman’s policy of containment – keeping communism within its present territory through diplomatic, economic, and military actions.
4Crisis in Iran After WWII, Soviet troops remained in Iran. Helped set up separate Communist gov’t in northern Iran.U.S. demanded their withdrawal & sent a battleship into the Mediterranean.Soviets withdrew from Iran.
5The Truman DoctrineMarch 12, 1947 – Truman went before Congress to request $400 million to fight Soviet aggression in Greece and Turkey.Policy became known as the Truman Doctrine.Purpose was to stabilize the Greek gov’t and ease Soviet demands in Turkey.Our pledge to stop Communism.
6The Marshall PlanJune 1947, Sec of State George C. Marshall proposed the European Recovery Program called the Marshall Plan.
7The Marshall PlanPlan would give European nations American aid to rebuild.Effort to fight hunger, poverty, and chaos.Soviets rejected the offer and developed their own economic program.Plan gave billions of dollars worth of supplies, machinery, and food to Western Europe, lessening the appeal of communism and opening new trade markets.
9The Berlin Crisis1948 – U.S., Britain, France merged their zones in Germany, and Berlin to create West Germany in response to the Soviets attempt to harm Germany’s economy.Soviet troops stopped all road and rail traffic to West Berlin, hoping to force Americans to renegotiate Germany’s status or give up Berlin.
10The Berlin CrisisTruman then sent long range bombers with atomic weapons to bases in Britain.Also ordered the Berlin airlift.For 11 months, cargo planes supplied Berliners with food, medicine, and coal.Stalin lifted the blockade on May 12, 1949.
14NATOAmerican public supported a military alliance with Western Europe.April 1949, The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a mutual defense alliance, was created with initially 12 countries joining.6 years later NATO allowed West Germany to rearm and joinSoviets countered with the Warsaw Pact in Eastern Europe.
15The Cold War Spreads to East Asia In China, Communist forces and Nationalist forces had been battling since the late 1920s.Stopped warring during WWII, to prevent Japanese occupation.After WWII, the Nationalists were defeated after poor leadership caused the U.S. to stop sending aid.Oct – Communists set up the People’s Republic of China.
17After the FallChina and the Soviet Union signed a treaty of friendship and alliance.U.S. kept China out of the United Nations.U.S. adopted policies to encourage the quick recovery of Japan’s economy.The U.S. saw Japan as its key in defending Asia.
18The Korean WarAt end of WWII, American & Soviet forces entered Korea to disarm Japanese troops stationed there.Allies divided Korea at the 38th parallel of latitude.Soviets controlled the North.Americans controlled the South.June 25, 1950 – North invaded the South.
20The UN Intervenes Truman asked the UN to act against the invasion. American, UN, and South Korean troops pushed back advancing North Korean troops.Chinese gov’t saw this as a threat and demanded withdrawal.UN refused and China began a massive attack.
21Truman & MacArthurMacArthur demanded approval to expand the war against China.Truman refused.MacArthur was fired for publicly criticizing the president.Truman was committed to a limited war.
22End of the Korean WarBy 1951 UN forces pushed back the Chinese and an armistice was signed July 1953.
23Changes in PolicyKorean War was an important turning point in the Cold War.The U.S. began a major military buildup.The Korean War expanded the Cold War beyond Europe and into Asia.
24Next: Section 3 The Cold War and American Society End of Section 2Next: Section 3The Cold War and American Society