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Beginnings of the Cold War 1945-1960. Aftermath of World War II Europe is in ruins. Nearly every major city has been damaged or destroyed Death tolls.

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Presentation on theme: "Beginnings of the Cold War 1945-1960. Aftermath of World War II Europe is in ruins. Nearly every major city has been damaged or destroyed Death tolls."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beginnings of the Cold War

2 Aftermath of World War II Europe is in ruins. Nearly every major city has been damaged or destroyed Death tolls USA: 300,000 Great Britain: 330,000 France: 380,000 USSR: 21 million Germany: 6 million Japan: 2 million Total: 30 million Berlin, 1945

3 Aftermath of World War II Germany is divided between the four Allied Powers (USA, USSR, Britain, France) Japan occupied by the USA MacArthur heads the occupation forces Demilitarization, Democratization

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5 Wartime Alliances Collapse Creation of the United Nations General Assembly: every member Security Council: 10 members, 5 permanent USA, USSR, Britain, France, China Allied Powers have differing views East (USSR) vs. West (USA)

6 USSR: The Iron Curtain Eastern Europe occupied after the war Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary The Soviets wanted a buffer zone between themselves and the West Will not give up their zone of Germany to reunite with the Western zones

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8 USA: Contain Communism Truman Doctrine, 1947: help out any country to fight communism Marshall Plan, 1948: Aid to all nations in Europe to help rebuild. (Rejected by pro-soviet governments) Berlin Airlift, June 1948 – May 1949: Soviets try to blockade West Berlin US Air Force flies in supplies non-stop

9 The World Divided The Cold War: everything short of actual fighting Rival Alliances NATO: United States and “Western” democratic allies Warsaw Pact: Soviet Union and “Eastern” communist allies Fear of Nuclear War USSR tests an atomic bomb in 1949 Military arms race in the 1950s and 1960s MAD: Mutually Assured Destruction Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 Closest we ever came to nuclear war

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