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The Cold War Begins 1951-53. Early 1951 January – April: U.S. 8 th Army pushes North Korean and Chinese forces back up the peninsula. January – April:

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War Begins 1951-53. Early 1951 January – April: U.S. 8 th Army pushes North Korean and Chinese forces back up the peninsula. January – April:"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War Begins

2 Early 1951 January – April: U.S. 8 th Army pushes North Korean and Chinese forces back up the peninsula. January – April: U.S. 8 th Army pushes North Korean and Chinese forces back up the peninsula. April – May: Communist troops launch last big offensive, checked by UN forces. April – May: Communist troops launch last big offensive, checked by UN forces. June: UN pushes back to 38 th parallel. June: UN pushes back to 38 th parallel.

3 Meanwhile, a flustered MacArthur After Chinese intervention in November 1950, he wanted more resources and greater latitude to prosecute the war, particularly: After Chinese intervention in November 1950, he wanted more resources and greater latitude to prosecute the war, particularly: air and naval forces against Communist China air and naval forces against Communist China Nationalist Chinese troops from Formosa Nationalist Chinese troops from Formosa Army divisions in reserve in U.S. Army divisions in reserve in U.S.

4 Then, a frustrated MacArthur Depicted situation in dire terms (evacuation of annihilation). Depicted situation in dire terms (evacuation of annihilation). Made numerous statements that undermined or attacked the Truman Administrations policies. Made numerous statements that undermined or attacked the Truman Administrations policies. MacArthur fired in April. MacArthur fired in April.

5 Administration policies Prosecute limited war in Korea. Prosecute limited war in Korea. Deter larger war with the Soviet Union Deter larger war with the Soviet Union Build-up U.S. nuclear & conventional forces Build-up U.S. nuclear & conventional forces Bolster alliances with allies. Bolster alliances with allies.

6 Money Defense budgets at the end of the Truman Administration jump to $40-50 billion. Defense budgets at the end of the Truman Administration jump to $40-50 billion. Two-thirds of federal budget. Two-thirds of federal budget. Spending on the Korea conflict accounts for about 40% of defense spending. Spending on the Korea conflict accounts for about 40% of defense spending.

7 Manpower, Over 1.7 million men drafted. Over 1.7 million men drafted. More than 800,000 reserves and National Guardsmen called for federal service. More than 800,000 reserves and National Guardsmen called for federal service. By 1953, U.S. Army had 20 divisions By 1953, U.S. Army had 20 divisions 6 in Germany 6 in Germany

8 Air Force beefed up Strategic Air Command: number of personnel and aircraft doubled over two years. Strategic Air Command: number of personnel and aircraft doubled over two years. Gets first all-jet bomber: B-47 Gets first all-jet bomber: B-47 Number of bases (and targets) expanded. Number of bases (and targets) expanded.

9 Number of tactical aircraft increased, primarily for defense of Europe Number of tactical aircraft increased, primarily for defense of Europe 1952: Air Defense Command created to develop integrated system to protect U.S. from enemy air attack 1952: Air Defense Command created to develop integrated system to protect U.S. from enemy air attack Air Force also ordered to build an early warning system Air Force also ordered to build an early warning system

10 NATO bolstered: 5 goals U.S.-appointed supreme commander for NATO forces in Europe. U.S.-appointed supreme commander for NATO forces in Europe. More U.S. forces for Europe. More U.S. forces for Europe. More military aid for NATO countries. More military aid for NATO countries. Draw up plans to defend western Europe in Germany. Draw up plans to defend western Europe in Germany. Create a West German army within NATO. Create a West German army within NATO.

11 Accomplishments by 1953 NATO had 25 active divisions in Europe (without any German troops) NATO had 25 active divisions in Europe (without any German troops) Over 5,000 aircraft at about 100 bases. Over 5,000 aircraft at about 100 bases.

12 Meanwhile, back in Korea… Front lines stabilize after summer of 1951, become more static. Front lines stabilize after summer of 1951, become more static. Fighting comes to result attritional warfare of WWI. Fighting comes to result attritional warfare of WWI. Iron Triangle key objective Iron Triangle key objective

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14 Far East Air Forces (FEAF) Missions: Missions: air superiority air superiority close air support close air support interdiction interdiction

15 Armistice talks Drag on from November 1951 – July Drag on from November 1951 – July Points of agreement: Points of agreement: demilitarized zone demilitarized zone no limits placed on forces on either side no limits placed on forces on either side Point of contention: Point of contention: prisoners of war prisoners of war

16 Late-war developments Eisenhower elected President in November Eisenhower elected President in November Stalin dies, March Stalin dies, March Communist insurgency in Indochina going well. Communist insurgency in Indochina going well. Rhee government (in ROK) convinced to accept an armistice. Rhee government (in ROK) convinced to accept an armistice.

17 July 27, 1953 Armistice signed (not a peace treaty). Armistice signed (not a peace treaty). Requires permanent U.S. commitment to South Korea: Requires permanent U.S. commitment to South Korea: Build-up of ROK forces Build-up of ROK forces Stationing of U.S. troops to help guard DMZ Stationing of U.S. troops to help guard DMZ


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