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Gender and Development Safaa El-Kogali 8-9 December, 2005 Rabat Morocco.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender and Development Safaa El-Kogali 8-9 December, 2005 Rabat Morocco."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender and Development Safaa El-Kogali 8-9 December, 2005 Rabat Morocco

2 What do we mean by gender equality?

3 Gender refers to … socially constructed roles and socially learned behaviors and expectations associated with females and males. Women and men are different biologically, but all cultures interpret and elaborate their innate biological differences into a set of social expectations about what behaviors and activities are appropriate, and what rights, resources, and power they possess.

4 Gender Equality is defined here in terms of: equality under the law equality of opportunity (including in access to human capital and other productive resources that enable opportunity and equality of rewards for work) and equality of voice (the ability to influence and contribute to the development process).

5 What is the state of gender equality at the beginning of the 21 st Century?

6 Despite progress, gender inequalities are pervasive worldwide and exist across many dimensions of life.

7 Gender equality has tended to increase over time – except in political participation Middle Income Countries High Income Countries Low Income Countries Female/male ratio Life expectancy Primary enrollment Secondary enrollment Parliamentary representation

8 In no region are women and men equal in legal, social and economic rights East AsiaEastern Europe and Central Asia Latin America and the Carribean Middle East/North Africa South AsiaSub- Saharan Africa OECD Index of gender equality (1-4) High Equality Low Equality

9 Women still earn less than men – even when they have similar education and work experience Female/male Gender Percent of gap earnings ratio gap unexplained Developed % countries Developing % countries

10 Women are vastly underrepresented in parliaments Women's share of parliamentary seats, 1995 (percent) East Asia/ Pacific Europe/ Central Asia Latin America/ Caribbean Middle East/ North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa OECD

11 among low-income than high-income countries among low-income than high-income households Gender disparities tend to be greater

12 Educational attainment in the Caribbean, Latin America Rising male mortality in the Former Soviet Union See also, The Trouble with Men The Economist (September, 1996) In some contexts there are increasing concerns about male gender issues

13 How does gender inequality affect development?

14 Societies that discriminate on the basis of gender pay a significant price – higher poverty, lower quality of life slower economic growth weaker governance

15 The future generation benefits from greater gender equality In Sub-Saharan Africa, if men and women had equal schooling, child mortality would have been 25% lower in In India, children of literate mothers spend two more hours/day studying than children of illiterate mothers. In Brazil, income in the hands of mothers has four times the impact on childrens height-for-age as income in the hands of fathers.

16 HIV infection rates are higher in countries where gender gaps in literacy are wider Urban adult HIV prevalence Male-female literacy gap b 0 0 0

17 Gender equality increases productivity and economic growth In Sub-Saharan Africa greater gender equality in farm inputs could increase output by up to 20 percent In Bangladesh, micro-credit to women has a larger impact on household income than the same micro- credit to men Greater gender equality in schooling would have increased growth in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Middle East and North Africa from

18 If women and men had more equal schooling, incomes would grow faster Sub-Saharan Africa South AsiaMiddle East/ North Africa Average annual growth in per capita GNP, (percent) Actual Predicted

19 Where women and men have more equal rights, governments are less corrupt Women's economic and social rights Index of corruption

20 Policy approaches to promoting gender equality and development

21 A three-part strategy to promote gender equality: Reform institutions to provide equal rights and equal opportunities for women and men Foster economic development to strengthen incentives for more equal resources Take active measures to redress persistent disparities in command of resources and political voice

22 Secondary Education, 1995 High Equality in Rights Low Equality in Rights Low Income High Income Female-to-Male Enrollment Ratio

23 High Equality in Rights Low Equality in Rights Low Income High Income Female-to-male ratio Representation in Parliament, 1995

24 A three-part strategy to promote gender equality: Reform institutions to provide equal rights and equal opportunities for women and men Foster economic development to strengthen incentives for more equal resources Take active measures to redress persistent disparities in command of resources and political voice

25 There is a critical role for active measures that Increase access to resources and services Reduce the costs to women of their household roles Establish gender-appropriate social protection Strengthen political voice and participation

26 Investments in water and fuel infrastructure significantly reduce time on collection activities Note: *Kasama and Dedougou are already within the 400m target. Potential Average Annual Time Savings Lusaka Rural (Zambia) Kaya (Burkina Faso) Mbale (Uganda) Kasama* (Zambia) Dedougou* (Burkina Faso) Annual time savings (hours per household) Potable water within 400m Woodlots within 30 mins walk

27 Pension income for average workers with incomplete primary education (female/male ratio in parenthesis) (0.89) (0.43) (0.35) (0.29) (0.60) Female own pension (retire age 60) Female own pension adjusted by MPG Female own pension (retire age 65) Female own or survivor's pension Female own+ survivor's pension Male own pension Pesos (thousands) Female pension benefits as a proportion of male benefits Design matters for gender equality in pension benefits

28 Taking gender considerations into account in policy and program design can promote gender equality … … and enhance policy effectiveness.

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