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© 2006 Population Reference Bureau HIV/AIDS Weakens the Immune System Opportunistic infections: Pneumonia Meningitis Some cancers Tuberculosis (TB) Other.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2006 Population Reference Bureau HIV/AIDS Weakens the Immune System Opportunistic infections: Pneumonia Meningitis Some cancers Tuberculosis (TB) Other."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau HIV/AIDS Weakens the Immune System Opportunistic infections: Pneumonia Meningitis Some cancers Tuberculosis (TB) Other parasitic, viral and fungal infections that weaken the immune system

2 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Global Estimates – HIV/AIDS People now living with HIV New HIV infections in 2005 Deaths due to AIDS by the end of 2005 40 million 4.9 million 25 million

3 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau People With HIV/AIDS, Cumulative Regional Totals Millions Growth of the AIDS Epidemic *Western and Central Europe & North America. Source: UNAIDS/WHO, 2005.

4 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Map of HIV Prevalence Worldwide 2005 Source: UNAIDS, 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2006. Adults Ages 15-49 with HIV 15.01% - 34.0% 5.01% - 15.0% 1.01% - 5.0% 0.51% - 1.0% 0.0% - 0.5% Not available

5 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau People Now Living with HIV Total: 40 million Western & Central Europe 720,000 North Africa & Middle East 440,000 Sub-Saharan Africa 24.5 million Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1.5 million South & South-East Asia 7.6 million Oceania 78,000 North America 1.3 million Caribbean 330,000 Latin America 1.6 million East Asia 750 000 Source: UNAIDS, 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2006.

6 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau HIV Demographics, Worldwide Composition of the Population Living with HIV, 2005 Source: UNAIDS, 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2006.

7 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau HIV Demographics, Africa Composition of the Population Living with HIV, 2005 Sub-Saharan Africa Rest of the World Source: UNAIDS, 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2006.

8 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Adults with HIV Who are Women Source: UNAIDS, 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2006. 2005 Percent

9 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Projections for Selected Countries Life expectancy at birth, in years Effect of AIDS on Life Expectancy 2015-2020 Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, 2005.

10 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2002-2005 Deaths of children under age 5 per 1,000 live births Source: UNAIDS and UNICEF, A Call to Action: Children, The Missing Face of AIDS, 2005; and United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision, 2005. Effect of AIDS on Child Mortality

11 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Population Structure in 2020 Millions Males Females With AIDS Without AIDS Age 80+ 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 AIDS Toll on Population Structure, South Africa Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (CD-ROM EditionExtended Dataset), 2005.

12 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Slower Population Growth Populations continue to grow in many heavily affected countries, although the growth is less than it would be in the absence of AIDS.

13 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Millions South Africas Population With and Without AIDS Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision (CD-ROM EditionExtended Dataset), 2005.

14 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau HIV – Only Health Problem or a Development Issue? Public Health Burden Overwhelms health systems in many countries Labor, Business, and Agriculture Losses in skilled labor Decreases productivity; having an economic impact Threatens agricultural production and food security Governance and Public Service Country losses of political leaders and civil servants Revenues decline and costs rise Demand for social services increases

15 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Poverty and HIV/AIDS Inadequate access to accurate information or prevention services Seeing no alternative besides sex work, for some women Labor migration – leads to increased vulnerability and spread of HIV Once infected, inadequate access to health care and treatment Vicious cycle of poverty, such as children orphaned because of AIDS

16 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Poverty and HIV/AIDS The Hunger Project, A Vicious Cycle – Poverty exacerbates HIV/AIDS, and HIV/AIDS exacerbates poverty, October 2001. http://www.thp.org/aids/cycle.htm United Nations (Population Division), Population, Development and HIV/AIDS with Particular Emphasis on Poverty, 2005. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/concise2005/ PopdevHIVAIDS.pdf ILO and UNAIDS, Women, girls, HIV/AIDS and the world of work, December 2004. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/trav/aids/publ/wo men-iloaids-brief.pdf

17 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau About 11,000 New HIV Infections a Day in 2005 More than 95% are in low and middle income countries About 1,500 are in children under age 15 About 10,000 are adults age 15 and older, of whom: almost 50% are women about 40% are ages 15–24 Source: UNAIDS, 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2006.

18 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Children Estimated to be Living with HIV Total: 2.3 million Children are defined as under age 15 Western & Central Europe 4,000 North Africa & Middle East 31,000 Sub-Saharan Africa 2.0 million Eastern Europe & Central Asia 6,900 South & South-East Asia 170,000 Oceania 3,000 North America 11,000 Caribbean 22,000 Latin America 32,000 East Asia 6,400 Source: UNAIDS, 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2006.

19 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau Global HIV and AIDS Estimates for Children Children living with HIV New HIV infections in 2005 Deaths due to AIDS in 2005 2.3 million 540,000 380,000 Children are defined as under age 15 Source: UNAIDS, 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2006.

20 © 2006 Population Reference Bureau In Summary HIV / AIDS - global epidemic Obvious impacts on demographic trends, especially population projections Visual patterns of mortality and health


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