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Education, Life Cycle and Mobility: A Latin American Perspective Martín Hopenhayn Director Social Development Division, ECLAC Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents,

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Presentation on theme: "Education, Life Cycle and Mobility: A Latin American Perspective Martín Hopenhayn Director Social Development Division, ECLAC Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Education, Life Cycle and Mobility: A Latin American Perspective Martín Hopenhayn Director Social Development Division, ECLAC Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents, Youth and Development New York, July 21 and 22, 2011

2 Formal education reinforces, does not reverse, the intergenerational reproduction of inequality. Socioeconomic conditions of adolescents and youngsters households have a strong influence not only on their educational achievements (years of schooling) but also on acquisition of significant knowledge. The linkage between family conditions (social, economical and cultural), educational performance, work-income opportunities and access to social security wrap up a life-cycle system on gaps and lacks. Main ideas

3 CONCLUDING SECONDARY EDUCATION: WHERE THE GREAT GAP BEGINS LATIN AMERICA (18 COUNTRIES): POPULATION AGED WITH COMPLETE SECONDARY EDUCATION BY PER CAPITA INCOME AND SEX, AROUND 2008 (Percentages) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys conducted in the respective countries. a The data for indigenous and non-indigenous young people refer to eight countries and correspond to 2007.

4 NOT ONLY A QUESTION OF ACHIEVEMENT: ALSO A QUESTION OF RYTHM LATIN AMERICA (18 COUNTRIES): YOUNG PEOPLE AGED WITH TIMELY PROGRESSION THROUGH THE EDUCATION SYSTEM, AROUND 2008 (Percentages) Total Decile 1 Decile 2 Decile 3Decile 4 Decile 5 Decile 6 Decile 7 Decile 8Decile 9Decile 10 Percentage Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys conducted in the respective countries.

5 STILL YOUNG AND HIGHLY EDUCATED: WHERE THE GAP GETS MUCH WIDER LATIN AMERICA (17 COUNTRIES): POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION ATTENDANCE AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE AGED AND COMPLETION OF AT LEAST FIVE YEARS OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION AMONG THOSE AGED BY PER CAPITA INCOME AND SEX, AROUND 2008 (Percentages) Source:Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys conducted in the respective countries.

6 Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special processing of microdata from the 2009 PISA test. A LAS BRECHAS EN AÑOS DE ESCOLARIDAD ALCANZADOS SE AGREGAN LAS BRECHAS EN APRENDIZAJES EFECTIVOS LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (NINE COUNTRIES) AND OECD AVERAGE: DISTRIBUTION OF PERFORMANCE ON THE PISA READING TEST AMONG 15-YEAR-OLD STUDENTS, BY INDEX OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND CULTURAL STATUS (ISEC)

7 ALTHOUGH CORRELATED, YOUNG GENERATIONS EXCEED IN AVERAGE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTS OF THEIR PARENTS LATIN AMERICA (SELECTED COUNTRIES): YOUNG PEOPLE AGED WHO COMPLETED VARYING LEVELS OF EDUCATION BY HOUSEHOLD EDUCATIONAL CLIMATE, AROUND 2006 a (Percentages) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys conducted in the respective countries. a Average years of education their parents completed, except for young people who are already emancipated and are themselves heads of households. In this case, refers to their own level of educational attainment.

8 THRESHOLD OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT FOR LABOR INCOMES MOVES UPWARDS LATIN AMERICA (18 COUNTRIES): YEARS OF SCHOOLING REQUIRED TO BE LESS LIKELY TO LIVE IN POVERTY OR TO EARN ABOVE-AVERAGE LABOUR INCOME AMONG THE EMPLOYED POPULATION AGED 20-29, AROUND 2008 A (Years of schooling) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys conducted in the respective countries. a Employed persons working 20 or more hours per week. b Urban areas.

9 THE HEART OF LIFE-CYCLE REPRODUCTION OF INEQUALITIES: EDUCATION-EMPLOYMENT LATIN AMERICA (SELECTED COUNTRIES): INFORMALITY AND MONTHLY LABOUR INCOME FOR THE EMPLOYED POPULATION AGED 15-29, AND 15 AND OVER, BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION(Percentages) Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys conducted in the respective countries.

10 THE GENDER INEQUALITY IN THE EDUCATION-INCOME RELATION LATIN AMERICA (SELECTED COUNTRIES): INCOME TRAJECTORY BY YEARS OF SCHOOLING, WAGE-EARNERS AGED 20 AND OVER WORKING 20 OR MORE HOURS PER WEEK, BY SEX, (Index: wages with zero years of schooling in the comparison category with the highest income=100) Source:Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys conducted in the respective countries.

11 FORMALITY-INFORMALITY GAP IN INCOME RETURNS TO EDUCATION. LATIN AMERICA (SELECTED COUNTRIES): INCOME TRAJECTORY BY YEARS OF SCHOOLING, WAGE-EARNERS AGED 20 AND OVER WORKING 20 OR MORE HOURS PER WEEK, BY LABOUR MARKET FORMALITY A (Index: wages with zero years of schooling in the comparison category with the highest income=100) Source:Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of special tabulations of data from household surveys conducted in the respective countries. a Simple average trajectory for each segment of the labour market, by country. The trajectory within each segment was calculated using a separate model that does not control for the other segmentations.

12 Gaps in secondary level is a quite recent concern compared to primary level enrolment and conclusion (still evident in working with family and the community). Demographic transition challenges to review composition of spending and non monetary efforts among different levels. Educational reforms during the last two decades emphasize quality rather than equity when it comes to secondary education. Segmentation depending on pocket-expenditure poses a great challenge to universal public supply with good quality and relevant knowledge. Teachers, ICTs, longer school days, relevant curricula: part of a complex menu where there are no short-term results and require State more than government policies and social covenants. Strong need to build links between leaving the school and moving into the labour market (and viceversa). Politics and policies considering education and intergenerational reproduction of inequality

13 Education, Life Cycle and Mobility: A Latin American Perspective Martín Hopenhayn Director Social Development Division, ECLAC Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents, Youth and Development New York, July 21 and 22, 2011


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