Presentation on theme: "Gender and Development: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base Johannes Jütting and Denis Drechsler OECD Development Centre Norway."— Presentation transcript:
Gender and Development: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base Johannes Jütting and Denis Drechsler OECD Development Centre Norway Ministry of Foreign Affairs Oslo 9 March 2007
2 Gender Equality MattersI Measuring Gender Equality: The GID-Data Base II Improving Gender Equality: What Can be Done? III Next Steps IV
3 I) Gender equality matters… Gender equality = women and men have equal conditions for realising their full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from economic, social, cultural and political development. Gender equality is an important goal in itself (MDG 3)… … and also contributes to the achievement of other objectives: - stimulate growth and reduce poverty - reduce inequities - contribute to child development
4 … but what determines it? Causalities between development and gender inequalities not clear 2 main schools of thinking - Modernisation-neoclassical approach - Feminist thesis Measurement problems: What? How?
5 Main messages Apart from having an intrinsic value, gender equality is an untapped source that can boost economic growth Improving gender equality needs to start with changing mindsets Both messages are relevant for OECD and non-OECD countries OECD countries: aging population, decline in the dependency ratio, double dividend from gender equality: increasing work force and improving demographics Non-OECD countries: better human development, higher female labour force participation, more sustainable growth
7 More women employed = More babies born Cross-country correlation between women employment rates and fertility rates between 1980 and 1999 Source: OECD (2005)
8 Previous analyses have mostly looked at women employment rates… Source: OECD (2005)
9 …while peoples mindsets are equally, if not more, important.
10 Gender equality can be a powerful source of economic development… Source: Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base, OECD (2006). Note: OECD-TOP refers to United States, Ireland, Norway, Iceland
11 …and can directly impact countries growth rates Sub-Saharan AfricaSouth AsiaMiddle East/North Africa (percent) Actual growth rate Projected growth rate Source: Engendering Development, in World Development Report 2000/01, Attacking Poverty, Washington: World Bank. Growth effect of closing the gender gap in schooling.
12 II) Measuring Gender Equality: The GID Data Base A new tool for researchers and policy makers to: quantify and measure gender equality build indicators of gender equality compare the status of women across countries analyse obstacles to gender equality Covers 161 countries and has 60 indicators Includes institutional variables that range from intra-household behaviour to social norms
13 Methodological Framework Political Empowerment (C) e.g. seats in parliament held by women Social Institutions (A) e.g. Family Code, Physical Integrity, Civil Liberties, Ownership Rights Economic Role of Women (D) e.g. share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Access to Resources (B) e.g. Health, Education Input VariablesOutput Variables Source: Own Illustration.
14 GID-Indicators : Social Institutions Physical Integrity Legislation punishing acts of violence against women Prevalence of female genital mutilation Missing Women Family Code Marriage before the age of 20 Acceptance of polygamy within a society Parental authority granted to father and mother equally Inheritance practices in favour of male heirs Ownership Rights Womens access to land ownership Womens access to bank loans Womens access to property other than land Civil Liberties Freedom of movement Obligation to wear a veil in public
15 Social Institutions and Female Labour Force Participation Source: GID Database
16 Social Institutions: Income Perspective Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions Source: GID Database
17 Social Institutions: Regional Perspective Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions Source: GID Database
18 The GID Data Base Online
19 III) Improving Gender Equality: What Can be Done? OECD countries: Change mindsets Adapt policies to allow better work-family balance Specific instruments: taxes, allowances, leave provision etc. Non-OECD countries: Improve data collection and monitor progress Better understand local specificities Ensure effective design and implementation of laws Strengthen womens voice Communicate benefits of reforms
20 IV) Next Steps Consolidate the data base Data quality and variable selection Composite indicators Conduct country case studies What social institutions impact gender equality? How can they be measured? Outreach and networking activities International organisations and local statistical offices Advocacy in donor and partner countries