Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

27 th February 2013 Closing the Gender Gap ACT NOW Ana LLENA-NOZAL Economist, Social Policy Division, OECD.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "27 th February 2013 Closing the Gender Gap ACT NOW Ana LLENA-NOZAL Economist, Social Policy Division, OECD."— Presentation transcript:

1 27 th February 2013 Closing the Gender Gap ACT NOW Ana LLENA-NOZAL Economist, Social Policy Division, OECD

2 OUTLINE The economic costs of gender inequality Policies to promote gender equality

3 In labour force participation gender gaps persist Source: OECD (2008), Growing Unequal? Gender gap in labour force participation (male rates minus female rates), population aged 15-64

4 Even larger gaps persist in other employment outcomes: prevalence of part-time… Percentage of men and women in part-time employment, 2010

5 … career progression in the private sector… Women’s shares in the labour force and senior management, 2010

6 Gaps in employment outcomes are reflected in the gender pay gap… Gender pay gap for full-time workers

7 The gender pay gap increases with age and during childbearing… Gender pay gap by presence of children, years old

8 Differences in take-home pay are even larger because women work fewer hours… Gender pay gap for full-time and all workers (part-time and full-time)

9 And pay gap contributes to lower pensions Gender pension gap, mandatory schemes, selected OECD countries, 2009

10 2. Policy considerations

11 Policy levers Gender equality policies. Family policies Tax/benefit policies Monitoring Cooperate with developing and emerging countries to address the gender dimensions of poverty through women’s economic empowerment

12 Provide paid employment-protected parental leave and promote more equal use among parents Paid parental leave (supplementary to paid maternity leave), 2008 Provide paid parental leave. Evidence suggests that : – extending parental leave entitlements had a small positive effect on the female-to-male employment ratio but only up to two years of leave; a longer leave has a negative effect on both the female employment rate; – extending paid parental leave had a small positive effect on weekly working hours among women but it was associated with an increase in the gender pay gap among full-time workers; Encourage fathers to take available parental leave, also by reserving part of the parental leave entitlement for the exclusive and non-transferable use by fathers.

13 Invest in childcare The OECD gender report shows that: Higher enrolment in formal childcare increases female employment on a full-time and part-time basis, and reduces pay gaps. Gender pay gaps and enrolment rates in formal childcare 2008 Sources: OECD Family database (www,oecd.org/els/family/database) and OECD Earnings database.

14  Tools:  corporate governance codes, target- setting for leadership positions, disclosure and monitoring of progress in both public and private sectors;  Some countries have introduced quotas for women in executive and supervisory boards of listed and public companies;  campaigning and raising awareness to encourage greater participation and representation of women in politics. Increase the representation of women in decision-making positions Share of women on boards in listed companies, 2009 Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap Act Now. (www.oecd.org/gender)

15 THANK YOU and FURTHER READING! “Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now” (17 December 2012 at


Download ppt "27 th February 2013 Closing the Gender Gap ACT NOW Ana LLENA-NOZAL Economist, Social Policy Division, OECD."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google