Presentation on theme: "27 th February 2013 Closing the Gender Gap ACT NOW Ana LLENA-NOZAL Economist, Social Policy Division, OECD."— Presentation transcript:
27 th February 2013 Closing the Gender Gap ACT NOW Ana LLENA-NOZAL Economist, Social Policy Division, OECD
OUTLINE The economic costs of gender inequality Policies to promote gender equality
In labour force participation gender gaps persist Source: OECD (2008), Growing Unequal? Gender gap in labour force participation (male rates minus female rates), population aged 15-64
Even larger gaps persist in other employment outcomes: prevalence of part-time… Percentage of men and women in part-time employment, 2010
… career progression in the private sector… Women’s shares in the labour force and senior management, 2010
Gaps in employment outcomes are reflected in the gender pay gap… Gender pay gap for full-time workers
The gender pay gap increases with age and during childbearing… Gender pay gap by presence of children, years old
Differences in take-home pay are even larger because women work fewer hours… Gender pay gap for full-time and all workers (part-time and full-time)
And pay gap contributes to lower pensions Gender pension gap, mandatory schemes, selected OECD countries, 2009
2. Policy considerations
Policy levers Gender equality policies. Family policies Tax/benefit policies Monitoring Cooperate with developing and emerging countries to address the gender dimensions of poverty through women’s economic empowerment
Provide paid employment-protected parental leave and promote more equal use among parents Paid parental leave (supplementary to paid maternity leave), 2008 Provide paid parental leave. Evidence suggests that : – extending parental leave entitlements had a small positive effect on the female-to-male employment ratio but only up to two years of leave; a longer leave has a negative effect on both the female employment rate; – extending paid parental leave had a small positive effect on weekly working hours among women but it was associated with an increase in the gender pay gap among full-time workers; Encourage fathers to take available parental leave, also by reserving part of the parental leave entitlement for the exclusive and non-transferable use by fathers.
Invest in childcare The OECD gender report shows that: Higher enrolment in formal childcare increases female employment on a full-time and part-time basis, and reduces pay gaps. Gender pay gaps and enrolment rates in formal childcare 2008 Sources: OECD Family database (www,oecd.org/els/family/database) and OECD Earnings database.
Tools: corporate governance codes, target- setting for leadership positions, disclosure and monitoring of progress in both public and private sectors; Some countries have introduced quotas for women in executive and supervisory boards of listed and public companies; campaigning and raising awareness to encourage greater participation and representation of women in politics. Increase the representation of women in decision-making positions Share of women on boards in listed companies, 2009 Source: OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap Act Now. (www.oecd.org/gender)
THANK YOU and FURTHER READING! “Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now” (17 December 2012 at