Presentation on theme: "The Situation of Women in China Johannes Jütting and Theodora Xenogiani 27 November 2007 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences."— Presentation transcript:
The Situation of Women in China Johannes Jütting and Theodora Xenogiani 27 November 2007 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
Rankings of gender equality China is “in the middle” according to rankings published in 2006 UNDP – Gender-related Development Index: 64 (out of 136) World Economic Forum - Gender Gap Index: 63 (out of 115) OECD - Social Institutions and Gender Index: 66 (out of 117)
Ratio of female to male adult literacy (>15 years) Maternal Mortality Ratio (per 100,000 live births) Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (in % of total) Women in Parliament (as % of total) Source: Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (2007), OECD
Early Marriage (% of girls between 15 and 19 years of age who are currently married, divorced or widowed) Inheritance Practices (male heirs are favoured = 1) Violence Against Women (absence of any legislation on violence against women = 1) Women‘s Access to Land (land ownership is not possible for women = 1) Source: Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (2007), OECD
A comparison with India China – literacy (%) China – GDP (US$) India – literacy (%) India – GDP (%) US$%
Challenges & Concerns in China Patriarchal traditions persist in many spheres of the Chinese society. Feminization of poverty, in both rural and urban areas. Inequality in the labour market (income gaps, hiring/firing, women are obliged to retire earlier than men).
Challenges & Concerns in China Female primary enrolment rates have increased, but female higher education rates lag behind. The political participation of women is low, particularly at the local level. Abnormal sex ratios: preference for male offspring.
Looking ahead Reforms of legal structures - Monitoring systems to ensure that changes take place Empowerment of women - More participation of women in decision-making on community level (example: quota in India) Encourage sex-disaggregated data collection Research should better analyse the role of social institutions, so that policies can address them more effectively
China and Social Institutions Assessment of the role of “social institutions” in China and their impact on gender equality Determining the impact of change on social institutions Estimating the economic impact of improving gender equality Formulate policies to improve gender equality in China