Dictatorship A system of government with centralized authority under a dictator. Usually involves terror, censorship, nationalism, and racism.
Problems after WWI ???????? soldiers killed Heavy debt Britain and France took land from Germany and went back on the land they had promised to Italy Governments were all coalitions that couldnt make decisions Rising unemployment led to unrest in cities
The Treaty of Versailles Italy felt cheated. Why? Central Powers treated them badly. Italys foreign Minister Orlando left before the conference ended, feeling humiliated. War guilt clause
The Rise of Mussolini in Italy Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
1922 March on Rome to establish Mussolini and the Fascist Party as the most important party in Italy In 1921 the fascist parties in Italy joined together to form the Fascist Party Mussolini said this at a party conference: "Either the government will be given to us or will shall seize it by marching on Rome."
Mussolini gains power Mussolini set up a Fascist Party and promised to solve Italys problems Promised to rebuild Italy and recreate the Roman Empire Organized armed gangs called the Blackshirts Came to power in 1922 and was appointed Prime Minister by King Victor Emmanuel to prevent a Communist Revolution in Italy
Quote Fascism should rightly be called Corporatism as it is a merge of state and corporate power.~ Benito Mussolini Fascis m concei ves of the State s an absolut e, in compar ison with
Do fascist governments believe in nationalism? How does the quote support ( or deny) your answer? Fascism conceives of the State as an absolute, in comparison with which all individuals or groups are relative, only to be conceived in their relation to the State. ~Benito Mussolini
Oct. 1935 – March 1936 restoration of colonial claims over the Ethiopian homeland
Mussolini and Hitler Hitler and Mussolini had a close relationship. In October 1936 they signed a non- military alliance. Mussolini signed a full defensive alliance with Nazi Germany in the Pact of Steel.
Italy during WWII Mussolini during WWII Mussolini intended to annex Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. He wanted to create a New Roman Empire. He annexed Albania, straining the military. His troops were unprepared for the German invasion of Poland. Italy remained neutral.
Italy during WWII contd Italy soon declared war on Britain and France but troops were unprepared. It was defeated by Greece and lost the worlds first carrier strike. Italy was defeated on all fronts of the Anglo-American landing. Mussolini
What is meant by the excerpt from Mussolinis speech in Rome February 23, 1941? We are not like the English. We boast that we are not like them. We haven't elevated lying into a government art nor into a narcotic for the people the way the London government has done…when the enemy wins a battle it is useless and ridiculous to seek, as the English do in their incomparable hypocrisy, to deny or diminish it.
What statement is the cartoonist making about Mussolinis character? Be specific and use the cartoon to explain your answer?
Mussolinis Execution Mussolini was taken prisoner by the partisans and was joined by his mistress, Clara Petacci. A few days later they were shot to death. In April of 1945, their bodies were hung at an Esso gas station along with the bodies of other fascist leaders. Mussolini and his mistress
1)What were some of the problems that Italy faces after WWI? 2)Why did Italians feel betrayed by the Treaty of Versailles? 3)What is fascism, and how did Mussolini gain control of the Italian government? 4)How did Italy fare during WWII? 5)What happened to Mussolini? Questions
Rise of Hitler 1928 Hitlers Nazi Party was a small, insignificant party enjoyed little success in elections
How were the Nazis able to achieve this so quickly? 1.The economic situation was very bad 2.Hitler was a great public speaker 3.The SA and SS disrupted the work of political opponents 4.The Nazis were funded by industrialists 5.The other political parties wouldnt work together 6.Goebbels propaganda was effective 7.People were fed up of ineffective coalition governments and the current situation 8.The Nazis targeted certain groups of the electorate 9.People didnt want a return to the hyperinflation of 1923-24 10.Fear of communism
But the Nazis never had a majority! The Nazi Party never had an absolute majority in the Weimar government They did become the largest single party though*******************
Why was Hitler made Chancellor? Public demanded improvements Nazi Party were largest party in Reichstag Hindendburg thought Hitler could be controlled Hitler was a national figure after the 1932 Presidential campaign (he came second to Hindendburg but had a large proportion of the vote)
How did Hitler consolidate power? February 27, 1933 A dazed Dutch Communist is found at the scene and charged with arson. [He is later found guilty and executed]. February 28, 1933 President Hindenburg and Chancellor Hitler invoke Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution, which permits the suspension of civil liberties in time of national emergency.
March 5, 1933 National elections give Nazis 44% plurality in the Reichstag did not give him a majority in the Reichstag Hitler arrested the 81 Communist deputies (which did give him a majority).
March 23, 1933 The Reichstag passes this law giving Hitler the power to make his own laws Nazi stormtroopers stopped opposition deputies going in, and beat up anyone who dared to speak against it. The Enabling Act made Hitler the dictator of Germany, with power to do anything he liked - legally. 3. Enabling Act
4. Gestapo April 26 1933 Nazis took over local government and the police replace anti-Nazi teachers and University professors set up the Gestapo (the secret police) and encouraged Germans to report opponents and 'grumblers Tens of thousands of Jews, Communists, Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, gypsies, homosexuals, alcoholics and prostitutes were arrested and sent to concentration camps for 'crimes' as small as writing anti-Nazi graffiti, possessing a banned book, or saying that business was bad.
May 2, 1933 trade Unions offices were closed their money confiscated, and their leaders put in prison Hitler put the German Labor Front which reduced workers' pay and took away the right to strike.
July 14, 1933 Law against the Formation of Parties declared the Nazi Party the only political party in Germany All other parties were banned, and their leaders were put in prison
7. The Night of the Long Knives a. June 30, 1934 b. Hitler, he still felt threatened by some in the Nazi Party c. worried that the regular army had not given an oath of allegiance d. the army hierarchy held him in disdain e. summer of 1934, the SA's numbers had swollen to 2 million men f. What was the SA? Who was Ernst Röhm ? g. power struggle within the Nazi Party h. the night of June 29th - June 30th 1934 i. Seventy seven men were executed on charges of treason j. Röhm was shot. Others were bludgeoned to death k. From that time on the SS became a feared force in Nazi Germany How did Hitler consolidate power?
What is the cartoonist saying about Hitler And how he controls his men?
August 19, 1934 When Hindenburg died, Hitler took over the office of President and leader of the army (the soldiers had to swear to die for Adolf Hitler personally). Hitler called himself 'Fuhrer'.
led the Nationalist armies against the Loyalists during the Spanish Civil War in the 1936 - 39 Francisco Franco Spain
One picture is worth a thousand words What can you tell about the character of these two leaders from their photographs? Examples of would be compassion, strength, open – mindedness, leadership traits. Use Your imagination to identify traits AND explain your answer!
What effect are the NAZIS trying to project in this scene? Are they successful in this endeavor? EXPLAIN!?
From the photograph, explain the similarities that you see between these two dictators. Explain your answer!
During the 1930s, Woody Guthrie songs Denouncing fascism. Why might he be against This political ideology? Write a stanza of this song!