Presentation on theme: "Appeasement and the Road To War Hitler’s Foreign Policy 1933-1935."— Presentation transcript:
Appeasement and the Road To War Hitler’s Foreign Policy
Aims: To examine the main features of fascist ideology. To identify the main aims of Hitler’s foreign policy
The Rise of the Nazis In 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. The Nazis had legitimately come to power by winning peoples’ votes and becoming the most popular political party in Germany. Within 18 months Hitler had established a fascist dictatorship in Germany. Fascism is a system of government led by a dictator with complete power. Nazi domestic policies meant that every aspect of people’s lives were controlled by the Nazi government. Nazi foreign policies caused conflict and tension between Germany and other countries.
Fascist Ideology Extreme nationalism - the importance of Germany above all other countries. Anti-communist – an almost pathological hatred of communism. Militarism and glorification of war – dictators use the police and armed forces to maintain loyalty to the regime and going to war demonstrates the strength and power of the country. Contempt for democracy – a one party state and all other political parties are banned. Racism – inferior races or ‘Untermenschen’ are to be conquered, enslaved and exterminated. Cult of the leader – citizens are expected to show unquestioning loyalty and obedience to the Fuhrer.
Hitler’s Foreign Policy Aims We must have revenge for the humiliation of Versailles We must make Germany strong by bringing together all German speaking people in one country We, Germans are the Master race. We have the right to make other races our servants. They are not our equals. As Germany grows more powerful we must have land and resources so that Germans can have space to live in and grow strong
Hitler’s Foreign Policy Nazi foreign policy was aggressive and expansionist. Hitler’s foreign policy aims would inevitably lead to war and conflict with other countries. These aims could only be achieved by expanding the German nation and acquiring more territory.
Hitler’s Foreign Policy Between four main issues dominated Hitler’s relationships with other countries 1933Disarmament Conference 1934Austria German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact. 1935German Rearmament
Disarmament Conference In 1932 the League of Nations finally got a Disarmament Conference under way in Geneva. In 1933 Hitler demanded parity (equality) with the French in terms of armaments. If they would not disarm, Germany should be allowed to rearm to the same military level as France. Hitler withdrew from the Conference and the League of Nations in October 1933 claiming that Germany was being unfairly treated. Many British politicians were openly sympathetic and felt the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh. Hitler continued to demonstrate his peaceful intentions by offering to negotiate but there was no response from the French. By March 1934 the German military budget had substantially increased.
German-Polish Non Aggression Pact The creation of Poland had placed a million Germans under Polish rule and separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany. This was one of the most hated terms of the Versailles Treaty. Peace was guaranteed between the two countries for 10 years. This helped to detach Poland from its 1921 pact with France. Both countries had signed a defensive treaty, promising aid to the other in the event of an attack by a third party. This was a clear attempt to isolate France from any of her allies.
Austria 1934 The union of Austria and Germany – Anschluss was a key aim of Nazi foreign policy. The Nazis had financed and encouraged the Austrian Nazi Party who used terror, intimidation and violent propaganda to win support in Austria. The Austrian Chancellor, Englebert Dollfuss had the party banned. On 25 th July 1934 Dollfuss was assassinated as part of a coup d’etat (attempt to seize power) with the Austrian Nazis intending to force a union with Germany. Mussolini did not want to share a common border with a ‘Greater Germany’. He was also worried that Hitler designs on the South Tyrol which had a substantial German minority. Mussolini sent 100,000 troops to the border in a show of force. Hitler was forced to back down and deny any involvement with the Austrian Nazis.
German Rearmament 1935 In 1935 conscription was reintroduced and Germany revealed the existence of the Luftwaffe. France, Britain and Italy met at Stresa and issued a formal protest as Hitler was breaking the terms of the Versailles treaty. The unity of the ‘Stresa Front’ did not last long. In June, the Anglo-German Naval Agreement was announced. Britain agreed that Germany could build up to 35% of her naval strength. Britain wanted to try and limit German rearmament by negotiation rather than stop it by force or threat.