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The Rise of Totalitarianism and the Causes of WW2 Ms. Campbell Socials 11.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Totalitarianism and the Causes of WW2 Ms. Campbell Socials 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of Totalitarianism and the Causes of WW2 Ms. Campbell Socials 11

2 The Rise of Totalitarianism A dictator is a ruler with unrestricted power who has no democratic restrictions. A totalitarian philosophy is one that puts the state above all else Thus a Totalitarian State is a dictatorship where the government uses violence, intimidation, and a police force to control all aspects of life

3 The USSR In 1924 Joseph Stalin was leader of the Communist Party in the USSR

4 The USSR The Five Year Plan was how Stalin planned to develop the economy of the USSR

5 The USSR In the late 1930s there was the Great Purge  Stalin eliminated anyone he believed opposed the communist government or his power  Millions convicted of crimes against the state  hundreds of thousands executed

6 Italy In Italy Benito Mussolini took control after World War One by establishing the Fascist Party This party was a totalitarian and nationalistic authoritarian government

7 Italy Mussolini created the Blackshirts  a gang of fascists who intimidated opponents and attacked Communists in the streets

8 Italy The National Fascist Party won 35 seats in the 1921 election The 1922 March on Rome was when 26,000 Blackshirts demanded the government be turned over to Mussolini Soon after Il Duce (The Leader) turned Italy into a totalitarian state

9 The March on Rome

10 Germany After World War One a democratic government called the Weimar Republic was established in Germany People distrusted this government because it had signed the Treaty of Versailles

11 Germany In 1920 Adolf Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (the Nazis) and in 1921 he became the leader The gained support by criticizing the Weimar Republic

12 Germany Hitler promised to make Germany a great nation again In 1932 the Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag

13 Germany In 1933 Hitler became chancellor of Germany and called himself the Fuhrer (The Leader) He rules through intimidation and fear

14 Germany A secret police called the Gestapo are formed

15 Germany Hitler defied the terms of the Treaty of Versailles  stops reparation payments  begins to rebuild the German military

16 Germany The Nazi Party believed Germans were a “master race” of Aryans The master race” did NOT include Jewish people, Roma, or Slavs; people with mental or physical disabilities; Communists; and homosexuals As early as 1933 the Nazis created concentration camps to isolate these people from the larger German society

17 Germany Hitler particularly hated Jewish people The Nuremberg Laws forced Jewish people to wear the Star of David at all times, banned marriage between Jews and Aryans, and restricted employment for Jews Violence against Jewish people was also encouraged

18 Germany November 9, 1938: Kristallnacht Nazi mobs attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues Sidewalks everywhere were covered with broken glass

19 Kristallnacht

20

21 Spain Fascist rebels led by General Franco (called Nationalists) tried to overthrow the Socialist government that had been elected in 1936

22 Spain The Spanish Civil War would last three years Guernica - Picasso

23 Spain More than 1200 Canadian volunteers fought even though the government passed a law that made it illegal for them to fight in foreign wars Franco won the war and became ruler in 1939 and was in power until 1975

24 Japan Japanese totalitarianism was influenced by European Fascism Japanese Emperor Hirohito r

25 Causes of WW2 Hitler wanted lebensraum – or “living space” Hitler slowly took over areas that had been banned by the Treaty of Versailles (p. 124 map)  1) Rhineland (1936)  2) Anschluss with Austria (1938)  3) The Sudetenland (1938)  4) Czechoslovakia (1939)

26 Causes of WW2

27 Britain and France used a policy of appeasement  essentially giving Hitler whatever he wanted

28 Causes of WW2 In 1939 Hitler and Stalin signed the Nazi- Soviet Non-aggression Pact  They promised not to attack each other  They decided to divide Poland between them

29 Causes of WW2 On September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland Britain and France responded immediately and by September 3, 1939 Europe was at war again

30 Causes of WW2

31 1931 Japan invaded and the Chinese government appealed to the League of Nations but they took no action other than condemning Japan’s  by 1937 Japan and China were at war

32 Causes of WW2 The League of Nations imposed sanctions but did not include oil!


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