3What is Fascism?A political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and dictatorial one party rule.MussoliniMussolini
4Why Fascism?Many European countries saw fascism, communism, and dictatorship as the only way to survive the economic problems and instability.
5Communism vs. Fascism Communism Fascism Promote a classless society One supreme leaderGoal: Spread of communism worldwideKarl MarxAllow for different classes to emergeGoal: Devotion to one’s country (NATIONALISM)The wills of the country over the people
6Quick WriteWhat societal conditions do you think there were that allowed for these Totalitarian regimes to rise in the 1st half of the 20th century.Quickly describe how they came to power.
7The Rise of Mussolini in Italy Benito Mussolini ( )
8What you will learn:1.) You will learn the conditions of Italy after WWI that made it ripe for a totalitarian takeover.2.) You will reinforce your knowledge of fascism.3.) You will learn about how Benito Mussolini arose to power.4.) You will learn about his reign as dictator of Fascist Italy.5.) You will learn about the beginning of the role he played in WWII.6.) You will learn about Mussolini’s influence on Italian society and the world.
9Problems after WWI for Italy 460,000 soldiers killedHeavy debt (wars are expensive)Britain and France did not give Italy the land they promised in Treaty of LondonThis is what got Italy to switch sidesGv’t of Italy at the time was badRising unemployment
10The Treaty of Versailles Italians believed that the T of V had treated them poorly.Italy had not been given the land promised at the Secret Treaty of London.Italy’s foreign Minister Orlando left before the conference ended, feeling humiliated.Who are these men?
11How does this represent fascism? What is fascism?A system of government under a dictator.Strong support of the nation over the individual!!Usually involves terror, censorship, nationalism, and racism.How does this represent fascism?
12Mussolini began his career as a journalist where he started to gain his own ideas in what became known as Fascism.Benito Mussolini
13Mussolini gains powerMussolini set up a Fascist Party and promised to solve Italy’s problemsWHY DOES THIS SOUND FAMILIAR??Promised to rebuild Italy and recreate the Roman EmpireOrganized armed gangs called the “Blackshirts”Blackshirts: Supporters of Mussolini
14MussoliniCame to power in 1922 and was appointed Prime Minister by King Victor Emmanuel to prevent a Communist Revolution in ItalyWhy would King Victor Emmanuel want to stop a Communist Revolution?How does putting Mussolini in charge accomplish this?
151922 March on Rometo establish Mussolini and the Fascist Party as the most important party in ItalyMussolini said this at a party conference:"Either the government will be given to us or will shall seize it by marching on Rome."
16Seizure of Power Mussolini’s capture of power In October 1922, 30,000 fascists marched on Rome, threatening King Victor Emmanuel III to give Mussolini the power.The king did not love the former liberal politicians, so he agreed to give Mussolini the power
19His leadershipMussolini became Il Duce (ihl Doo-chay), meaning the leader.He enforced fascism throughout his country.He forced all the other political parties to be illegal and he also got rid of the democracy.His opponents were put to jail by his secret police.The government took control of all the radio stations and all the other Medias to broadcast only the doctrines of the fascism.
21A couple of quick questions Do you think people were upset by Mussolini creating a fascist state Italy?I mean Mussolini is restricting freedom, he is terrorizing people through his secret police?Most of the Italians in the 1920s-30s supported Mussolini and his fascist state!!How do you think Mussolini was able to gain and maintain this much support?
22Government by Propaganda One of the reasons why Mussolini was able to gain support from the people was the through use of propaganda.Propaganda = message such as posters made to convince people’s mind, sometimes with lies
23Mussolini “Controlled Media” Mussolini and his government controlled all the multi-medias including radio, press, newspaper and education to force people to think that fascism was the right and the best doctrine. (C in SCOOP: Controls…)Propaganda was also used to ensure the national spirit for the people in Italy and remind people how powerful Mussolini was.
24Propaganda PostersThe poster on the far right shows the slogan by Mussolini. It says, “Believe, Obey, Fight”.Schools taught these 3 discipline to the students.
26Mussolini and Hitler Mussolini was outcast from the League of Nations. (WHAT IS THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS?)In October 1936 they signed a non-military alliance. Mussolini signed a full defensive alliance with Nazi Germany in the Pact of Steel.Mussolini and Hitler
27Italy during WWIIMussolini intended to annex Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. He wanted to create a “New Roman Empire.” He annexed Albania, straining the military. His troops were unprepared for the German invasion of Poland. Italy remained neutral.Mussolini during WWII
29Spain Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) Republicans vs. Nationalists/FascistsGermany and Italy supported the NationalistsRussia and many international brigades supported the republicans.Abraham Lincoln brigade from the United States.The nationalists won.Francisco Franco became the fascist dictator.
30Guernica by Pablo Picasso Painted in 1937 in response to the German bombing of the Spanish city of Guernica in support of Francisco Franco's Fascist forces.It shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians.
31Totalitarianism*These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behavior
33CommunismI am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union fromWhat is Communism?LEFT WINGbased on theory by Karl Marxrevolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society”state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership)Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism
34FascismI am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943.What is Fascism?RIGHT WINGintense nationalism and elitismtotalitarian controlinterests of the state more important than individual rightsmaintain class system and private ownershipInteresting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax
35NazismI am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.What is Nazism?extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarianbased on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Partybelief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race”belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in EuropeViolent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them