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Quick Write What are the differences and similarities between Fascism and Communism? What are the differences and similarities between Fascism and Communism?

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Presentation on theme: "Quick Write What are the differences and similarities between Fascism and Communism? What are the differences and similarities between Fascism and Communism?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Quick Write What are the differences and similarities between Fascism and Communism? What are the differences and similarities between Fascism and Communism?

3 Fascism in Europe

4 What is Fascism? A political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and dictatorial one party rule. A political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and dictatorial one party rule. Mussolini

5 Why Fascism? Many European countries saw fascism, communism, and dictatorship as the only way to survive the economic problems and instability. Many European countries saw fascism, communism, and dictatorship as the only way to survive the economic problems and instability.

6 Communism vs. Fascism Communism Promote a classless society Promote a classless society One supreme leader One supreme leader Goal: Spread of communism worldwide Goal: Spread of communism worldwide Karl Marx Karl Marx Fascism Allow for different classes to emerge Allow for different classes to emerge Goal: Devotion to ones country (NATIONALISM) Goal: Devotion to ones country (NATIONALISM) The wills of the country over the people The wills of the country over the people

7 Quick Write What societal conditions do you think there were that allowed for these Totalitarian regimes to rise in the 1 st half of the 20 th century. What societal conditions do you think there were that allowed for these Totalitarian regimes to rise in the 1 st half of the 20 th century. Quickly describe how they came to power. Quickly describe how they came to power.

8 The Rise of Mussolini in Italy Benito Mussolini ( )

9 What you will learn: 1.) You will learn the conditions of Italy after WWI that made it ripe for a totalitarian takeover. 1.) You will learn the conditions of Italy after WWI that made it ripe for a totalitarian takeover. 2.) You will reinforce your knowledge of fascism. 2.) You will reinforce your knowledge of fascism. 3.) You will learn about how Benito Mussolini arose to power. 3.) You will learn about how Benito Mussolini arose to power. 4.) You will learn about his reign as dictator of Fascist Italy. 4.) You will learn about his reign as dictator of Fascist Italy. 5.) You will learn about the beginning of the role he played in WWII. 5.) You will learn about the beginning of the role he played in WWII. 6.) You will learn about Mussolinis influence on Italian society and the world. 6.) You will learn about Mussolinis influence on Italian society and the world.

10 Problems after WWI for Italy 460,000 soldiers killed 460,000 soldiers killed Heavy debt (wars are expensive) Heavy debt (wars are expensive) Britain and France did not give Italy the land they promised in Treaty of London Britain and France did not give Italy the land they promised in Treaty of London This is what got Italy to switch sides This is what got Italy to switch sides Gvt of Italy at the time was bad Gvt of Italy at the time was bad Rising unemployment Rising unemployment

11 The Treaty of Versailles Italians believed that the T of V had treated them poorly. Italians believed that the T of V had treated them poorly. Italy had not been given the land promised at the Secret Treaty of London. Italy had not been given the land promised at the Secret Treaty of London. Italys foreign Minister Orlando left before the conference ended, feeling humiliated. Italys foreign Minister Orlando left before the conference ended, feeling humiliated. Who are these men?

12 What is fascism? A system of government under a dictator. A system of government under a dictator. Strong support of the nation over the individual!! Strong support of the nation over the individual!! Usually involves terror, censorship, nationalism, and racism. Usually involves terror, censorship, nationalism, and racism. How does this represent fascism?

13 Mussolini began his career as a journalist where he started to gain his own ideas in what became known as Fascism. Mussolini began his career as a journalist where he started to gain his own ideas in what became known as Fascism. Benito Mussolini

14 Mussolini gains power Mussolini set up a Fascist Party and promised to solve Italys problems Mussolini set up a Fascist Party and promised to solve Italys problems WHY DOES THIS SOUND FAMILIAR?? WHY DOES THIS SOUND FAMILIAR?? Promised to rebuild Italy and recreate the Roman Empire Promised to rebuild Italy and recreate the Roman Empire Organized armed gangs called the Blackshirts Organized armed gangs called the Blackshirts Blackshirts: Supporters of Mussolini

15 Mussolini Came to power in 1922 and was appointed Prime Minister by King Victor Emmanuel to prevent a Communist Revolution in Italy Came to power in 1922 and was appointed Prime Minister by King Victor Emmanuel to prevent a Communist Revolution in Italy Why would King Victor Emmanuel want to stop a Communist Revolution? Why would King Victor Emmanuel want to stop a Communist Revolution? How does putting Mussolini in charge accomplish this? How does putting Mussolini in charge accomplish this?

16 1922 March on Rome to establish Mussolini and the Fascist Party as the most important party in Italy to establish Mussolini and the Fascist Party as the most important party in Italy Mussolini said this at a party conference: Mussolini said this at a party conference: "Either the government will be given to us or will shall seize it by marching on Rome."

17 Seizure of Power Mussolinis capture of power In October 1922, 30,000 fascists marched on Rome, threatening King Victor Emmanuel III to give Mussolini the power. In October 1922, 30,000 fascists marched on Rome, threatening King Victor Emmanuel III to give Mussolini the power. The king did not love the former liberal politicians, so he agreed to give Mussolini the power The king did not love the former liberal politicians, so he agreed to give Mussolini the power

18 March on Rome, 1922

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20 His leadership Mussolini became Il Duce (ihl Doo-chay), meaning the leader. Mussolini became Il Duce (ihl Doo-chay), meaning the leader. He enforced fascism throughout his country. He forced all the other political parties to be illegal and he also got rid of the democracy. His opponents were put to jail by his secret police. The government took control of all the radio stations and all the other Medias to broadcast only the doctrines of the fascism.

21 Fascism under Mussolini

22 A couple of quick questions Do you think people were upset by Mussolini creating a fascist state Italy? Do you think people were upset by Mussolini creating a fascist state Italy? I mean Mussolini is restricting freedom, he is terrorizing people through his secret police? I mean Mussolini is restricting freedom, he is terrorizing people through his secret police? Most of the Italians in the 1920s- 30s supported Mussolini and his fascist state!! How do you think Mussolini was able to gain and maintain this much support?

23 Government by Propaganda One of the reasons why Mussolini was able to gain support from the people was the through use of propaganda. One of the reasons why Mussolini was able to gain support from the people was the through use of propaganda. Propaganda = message such as posters made to convince peoples mind, sometimes with lies Propaganda = message such as posters made to convince peoples mind, sometimes with lies

24 Mussolini Controlled Media Mussolini and his government controlled all the multi-medias including radio, press, newspaper and education to force people to think that fascism was the right and the best doctrine. (C in SCOOP: Controls…) Mussolini and his government controlled all the multi-medias including radio, press, newspaper and education to force people to think that fascism was the right and the best doctrine. (C in SCOOP: Controls…) Propaganda was also used to ensure the national spirit for the people in Italy and remind people how powerful Mussolini was. Propaganda was also used to ensure the national spirit for the people in Italy and remind people how powerful Mussolini was.

25 Propaganda Posters The poster on the far right shows the slogan by Mussolini. It says, Believe, Obey, Fight. The poster on the far right shows the slogan by Mussolini. It says, Believe, Obey, Fight. Schools taught these 3 discipline to the students. Schools taught these 3 discipline to the students.

26 More Propaganda

27 Mussolini and Hitler Mussolini was outcast from the League of Nations. (WHAT IS THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS?) In October 1936 they signed a non-military alliance. Mussolini signed a full defensive alliance with Nazi Germany in the Pact of Steel.

28 Italy during WWII Mussolini during WWII Mussolini intended to annex Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. He wanted to create a New Roman Empire. He annexed Albania, straining the military. His troops were unprepared for the German invasion of Poland. Italy remained neutral.

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30 Spain Spanish Civil War ( ) Spanish Civil War ( ) Republicans vs. Nationalists/Fascists Republicans vs. Nationalists/Fascists Germany and Italy supported the Nationalists Germany and Italy supported the Nationalists Russia and many international brigades supported the republicans. Russia and many international brigades supported the republicans. Abraham Lincoln brigade from the United States. Abraham Lincoln brigade from the United States. The nationalists won. The nationalists won. Francisco Franco became the fascist dictator. Francisco Franco became the fascist dictator.

31 Guernica by Pablo Picasso Painted in 1937 in response to the German bombing of the Spanish city of Guernica in support of Francisco Franco's Fascist forces. It shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians.

32 Nazism FascismCommunism * These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behavior Totalitarianism

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34 I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from What is Communism? LEFT WING based on theory by Karl Marx revolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a classless society state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership) Soviet Communism or Stalinism, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism

35 I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to What is Fascism? RIGHT WING intense nationalism and elitism totalitarian control interests of the state more important than individual rights maintain class system and private ownership Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax

36 I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to What is Nazism? extremely fascist, nationalistic and totalitarian based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the master race belief that all Germans should have lebensraum or living space in Europe Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germanys problems on them


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