Spain Prior to 1936 Spain had been a monarchy up until 1931 when a republic was declared. The government came under the control of both liberals and socialists. Socialists –those who believe in socialism Liberals – those who believe in individual freedoms
Socialism A form of government in which the state owns or controls the industries that produce basic goods and services. EXAMPLES: Communications Transportation Power generation
Spanish Civil War July, 1936 – Army leaders favoring a Fascist-style government revolted Led by General Francisco Franco
Fascism A form of government which promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one- party rule.
Foreign Intervention in Spain Both Germany and Italy sent troops and equipment to help Franco’s ‘Nationalist’ forces. The Soviet Union sent equipment and advisors to help the ‘Republican’ elected government. The Western Democracies remained neutral
The Fascist Party Mussolini founded the Fascist party in 1919. He promised to rescue Italy from rising inflation and unemployment as well as social unrest following World War One He publicly criticized the government as conditions worsened.
Mussolini Takes Power Mussolini supporters attacked both Communists and Socialists on the streets of Italy in order to weaken his opponents October 1922 – Mussolini marched on Rome and demanded that King Victor Emmanuel III place him in charge of the government.
Il Duce Il Duce – leader Mussolini abolished democracy and outlawed all political parties except the Fascists Jailed his opponents Took control of newspapers and radio stations Outlawed strikes
Stalin’s Rise to Power Stalin became general secretary of the Communist Party in 1922 By placing his supporters in key positions, Stalin was able to take total command of the Communist Party by 1928
Communism An economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people Private property does not exist All goods and services are shared equally
Stalin Forms a Totalitarian Government Totalitarianism – a form of government that takes total, centralized state control over every aspect of public and private life Business Family life Labor Housing Religion Education The Arts Youth Groups
Stalin’s Reforms Industrial Revolution Consumer good production was cut in favor of heavy industry Workers were assigned jobs Agricultural Revolution Developed collective farms Wealthy peasant farmers who resisted were eliminated
Rise of the Nazis In 1920, Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) Party Chosen der Führer due to his organizational skills as well as his speaking ability Adopted the Swastika as its symbol
Revival of the Nazis Hitler revived the party after leaving prison in 1924 The Great Depression hit Germany hard Loans from America stopped 30% unemployment Banks closed Communist Party gained power Germans turned to Hitler for leadership
Hitler Becomes Chancellor By 1932, the Nazis had become the largest political party in Germany January 1933 – President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor under political pressure Hitler turned Germany into a Totalitarian State
Other European Dictatorships Hungary Poland Yugoslavia Albania Bulgaria Romania
Democratic Countries Czechoslovakia Britain France Norway Sweden Denmark
Hitler Clip: 2:56 YouTube - Hitler - Mein Kampf (documentary) First speech as chancelor.YouTube - Hitler - Mein Kampf (documentary) First speech as chancelor.