4Spain Prior to 1936Spain had been a monarchy up until 1931 when a republic was declared.The government came under the control of both liberals and socialists.Socialists – those who believe in socialismLiberals – those who believe in individual freedoms
5SocialismA form of government in which the state owns or controls the industries that produce basic goods and services.EXAMPLES:CommunicationsTransportationPower generation
6Spanish Civil WarJuly, 1936 – Army leaders favoring a Fascist-style government revoltedLed by General Francisco Franco
7FascismA form of government which promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule.
8Foreign Intervention in Spain Both Germany and Italy sent troops and equipment to help Franco’s ‘Nationalist’ forces.The Soviet Union sent equipment and advisors to help the ‘Republican’ elected government.The Western Democracies remained neutral
13The Fascist Party Mussolini founded the Fascist party in 1919. He promised to rescue Italy from rising inflation and unemployment as well as social unrest following World War OneHe publicly criticized the government as conditions worsened.
14Mussolini Takes PowerMussolini supporters attacked both Communists and Socialists on the streets of Italy in order to weaken his opponentsOctober 1922 – Mussolini marched on Rome and demanded that King Victor Emmanuel III place him in charge of the government.
15Il DuceIl Duce – leaderMussolini abolished democracy and outlawed all political parties except the FascistsJailed his opponentsTook control of newspapers and radio stationsOutlawed strikes
18Stalin’s Rise to PowerStalin became general secretary of the Communist Party in 1922By placing his supporters in key positions, Stalin was able to take total command of the Communist Party by 1928
19CommunismAn economic system in which all means of production are owned by the peoplePrivate property does not existAll goods and services are shared equally
20Stalin Forms a Totalitarian Government Totalitarianism – a form of government that takes total, centralized state control over every aspect of public and private lifeBusinessFamily lifeLaborHousingReligionEducationThe ArtsYouth Groups
21Stalin’s Reforms Industrial Revolution Agricultural Revolution Consumer good production was cut in favor of heavy industryWorkers were assigned jobsAgricultural RevolutionDeveloped collective farmsWealthy peasant farmers who resisted were eliminated
26Rise of the NazisIn 1920, Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) PartyChosen der Führer due to his organizational skills as well as his speaking abilityAdopted the Swastika as its symbol
32Revival of the NazisHitler revived the party after leaving prison in 1924The Great Depression hit Germany hardLoans from America stopped30% unemploymentBanks closedCommunist Party gained powerGermans turned to Hitler for leadership
33Hitler Becomes Chancellor By 1932, the Nazis had become the largest political party in GermanyJanuary 1933 – President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor under political pressureHitler turned Germany into a Totalitarian State
34Other European Dictatorships HungaryPolandYugoslaviaAlbaniaBulgariaRomania
35Democratic Countries Czechoslovakia Britain France Norway Sweden Denmark
36Hitler Clip: 2:56YouTube - Hitler - Mein Kampf (documentary) First speech as chancelor.