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European Dictators Prior to WW II

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1 European Dictators Prior to WW II

2 Spain Italy U.S.S.R. Germany


4 Spain Prior to 1936 Spain had been a monarchy up until 1931 when a republic was declared. The government came under the control of both liberals and socialists. Socialists – those who believe in socialism Liberals – those who believe in individual freedoms

5 Socialism A form of government in which the state owns or controls the industries that produce basic goods and services. EXAMPLES: Communications Transportation Power generation

6 Spanish Civil War July, 1936 – Army leaders favoring a Fascist-style government revolted Led by General Francisco Franco

7 Fascism A form of government which promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule.

8 Foreign Intervention in Spain
Both Germany and Italy sent troops and equipment to help Franco’s ‘Nationalist’ forces. The Soviet Union sent equipment and advisors to help the ‘Republican’ elected government. The Western Democracies remained neutral


10 Outcome Franco’s forces defeated the Republican resistance early in 1939. Franco became Spain’s Fascist dictator


12 Benito Mussolini

13 The Fascist Party Mussolini founded the Fascist party in 1919.
He promised to rescue Italy from rising inflation and unemployment as well as social unrest following World War One He publicly criticized the government as conditions worsened.

14 Mussolini Takes Power Mussolini supporters attacked both Communists and Socialists on the streets of Italy in order to weaken his opponents October 1922 – Mussolini marched on Rome and demanded that King Victor Emmanuel III place him in charge of the government.

15 Il Duce Il Duce – leader Mussolini abolished democracy and outlawed all political parties except the Fascists Jailed his opponents Took control of newspapers and radio stations Outlawed strikes

16 U.S.S.R (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)

17 Joseph Stalin

18 Stalin’s Rise to Power Stalin became general secretary of the Communist Party in 1922 By placing his supporters in key positions, Stalin was able to take total command of the Communist Party by 1928

19 Communism An economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people Private property does not exist All goods and services are shared equally

20 Stalin Forms a Totalitarian Government
Totalitarianism – a form of government that takes total, centralized state control over every aspect of public and private life Business Family life Labor Housing Religion Education The Arts Youth Groups

21 Stalin’s Reforms Industrial Revolution Agricultural Revolution
Consumer good production was cut in favor of heavy industry Workers were assigned jobs Agricultural Revolution Developed collective farms Wealthy peasant farmers who resisted were eliminated


23 Stalin’s Purges Beginning in 1934, Stalin eliminated anyone who threatened his power By 1939, it is estimated that he was responsible for the deaths of between 8 million and 13 million Russians

24 Germany

25 Adolf Hitler

26 Rise of the Nazis In 1920, Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) Party Chosen der Führer due to his organizational skills as well as his speaking ability Adopted the Swastika as its symbol


28 Beer Hall Putsch 1923 attempt by the Nazis to seize power in Munich
Hitler was arrested and tried for treason Sentenced to five years in prison, however he only served nine months


30 Mein Kampf While in prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf – “My Struggle”
Set forth his plans for Germany Aryan master race Identified sub-humans: Jews, Gypsies, Slavs Lebensraum – Living space (Russia)


32 Revival of the Nazis Hitler revived the party after leaving prison in 1924 The Great Depression hit Germany hard Loans from America stopped 30% unemployment Banks closed Communist Party gained power Germans turned to Hitler for leadership

33 Hitler Becomes Chancellor
By 1932, the Nazis had become the largest political party in Germany January 1933 – President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor under political pressure Hitler turned Germany into a Totalitarian State

34 Other European Dictatorships
Hungary Poland Yugoslavia Albania Bulgaria Romania

35 Democratic Countries Czechoslovakia Britain France Norway Sweden

36 Hitler Clip: 2:56 YouTube - Hitler - Mein Kampf (documentary) First speech as chancelor.

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