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European Imperialism 1850-1914 Imperialism is an institution under which one nation asserts the right to seize the land or at least to control the government.

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Presentation on theme: "European Imperialism 1850-1914 Imperialism is an institution under which one nation asserts the right to seize the land or at least to control the government."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Imperialism 1850-1914
Imperialism is an institution under which one nation asserts the right to seize the land or at least to control the government or resources of another people John T. Flynn

2 Introduction Imperialism- The social, economic, and political domination of one nation by another country. Old Imperialism- Took place between 1500 and 1800, included the American Colonies. New Imperialism- Between 1815 & 1914, the West (Europe and America) increased their control of the world’s land mass from 35%-85%.

3 New Imperialism Between 1850 and 1914, nationalism had produced strong, centrally governed nation-states. The Industrial Revolution had made economics stronger as well. During this time, Japan, the U.S., and the industrialized nations of Europe became more aggressive in expanding in other lands. The new imperialism was focused mainly in Asia and Africa, where declining empires and local wars left many states vulnerable. In Africa, many states had been weakened by the legacy of the slave trade.

4 Nationalism Feeling of intense pride towards your country.
Nationalistic thought led to a feeling of superiority, so imperialists felt they had the right to take control of other countries they viewed as weaker.

5 Three types of imperialism
Colony- Direct and complete control Protectorate- Control foreign affairs - not directly ruled Sphere of Influence- Control trade (think of a street gang & its turf)

6 Causes of Imperialism Economic
Industrialization gave the West the ability to conquer other parts of the world. Large-scale industrial production made Western factories demand more raw materials, which could be seized from less powerful nations. Also, Western nations needed markets for goods produced. -Colonies would serve as potential markets. Immense wealth allowed Western world to conquer distant places.

7 Causes of Imperialism Military Factors
Industrialization bestowed new weaponry of all types upon the armies and navies of the West: -Ocean-going fleets -Modern rifles and rapid-fire artillery. Occasions were rare that native populations could resist Western military forces. Growing need of Western nations to maintain bases & coal/oil stations around the world for naval & civilian fleets. -Ships required repairs and refueling stations at strategic locations globally.

8 Causes of Imperialism Social Factors
Europe’s rapid population growth during the 1800’s-played a role in prompting imperial activity. -Emigration to the Americas was an outlet. -Millions came to the Americas. -Another outlet was to leave home for colonial life. *Ambitious or desperate families attempted to make their fortunes this way.

9 Causes of Imperialism Role of Science & Technology
Instrumental in allowing West to conquer & colonize. -Knowledge was power. -Advances in transportation, communication, and warfare brought by the I.R. enabled Western nations to build empires. - New wave of exploration allowed for better knowledge of the geography of the world. Medical advances -Made possible for Europeans and Americans to press into tropical regions. The bark of the cinchona tree, native to South America, contains quinine alkaloids used to treat malaria. In the 19th century cinchona trees began to be widely cultivated in the East Indies and India after many native cinchona trees were destroyed. "Cinchona Tree."Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

10 Causes of Imperialism Cultural Factors
Sense of racial superiority was widespread among Westerners. Created a sense that Western nations were entitled to conquer & colonize areas that appeared “backwards” or “primitive”. -Cecil Rhodes, British imperialist, “I contend that we are the finest race in the world, and the more of it we inhabit, the better.” Cecil Rhodes used his great wealth, made from mining diamonds in Africa, to extend British rule in southern Africa. Upon his death in 1902, much of Rhodes’s vast fortune went to the University of Oxford for the establishment of Rhodes scholarships. "Cecil Rhodes."Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Cecil Rhodes

11 Causes of Imperialism Cultural Factors
Social Darwinism encouraged imperialism. The idea applied to Darwin’s Theory of Survival of the Fittest. Social Darwinist’s argued that it was natural for stronger nations to dominate weaker nations. Never supported by Darwin. Charles Darwin was greatly influenced by the geologist Adam Sedgwick and naturalist John Henslow in his development of the theory of natural selection, which was to become the foundation concept supporting the theory of evolution. Darwin’s theory holds that environmental effects lead to varying degrees of reproductive success in individuals and groups of organisms. Natural selection tends to promote adaptation in organisms when necessary for survival. This revolutionary theory was published in 1859 in Darwin’s now famous treatise On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. "Charles Darwin."Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Charles Darwin

12 Causes of Imperialism Cultural Factors
Westerners believed that it was the White Imperialists duty to teach & modernize the darker-skinned, supposedly “primitive” peoples of Africa & Asia. English poet Rudyard Kipling, “White Man’s Burden”. Poem explained why Westerners were superior to people from “primitive” people. Rudyard Kipling

13 Europe’s Overseas Empires
India British East India Company This company established trade in India and by 1800, controlled 3/5ths of India. The company employed Indian Soldiers called SEPOYS. The Sepoys were forced to follow rules against their Muslim religion and revolted, this was crushed by the British army. The tension that followed caused the British government to take complete control of India in 1858.

14 Europe’s Overseas Empires
China China and the rest of the East did not want western culture in their part of the world and greatly resisted imperialism. British merchants began trading opium with China in the 1700’s. When the Chinese tried to ban the import of the illegal drug, Britain overpowered them and established colonies in China. This battle is considered the Opium War. After the Opium War other European powers carved up the East with “Spheres of Influence” – which meant that foreign countries had exclusive trade rights within the country. In the late 19th century Chinese resentment grew toward Japan and Western countries because of their economic and political exploitation and humiliating military defeats of China. A secret society of Chinese called the Boxers began terrorizing Christian missionaries in In these attacks culminated in the violent Boxer Uprising in Beijing, which claimed the lives of many Chinese and foreigners. Western powers occupied the city and quelled the revolt. "Boxer Uprising."Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

15 Europe’s Overseas Empires
Scramble for Africa After 1880, African colonization moved away from gold & slave trade to one of taking over territory. Thanks to better maps, industrial-era weapons, and medicines, European armies and colonizers were able to penetrate every part of the “Dark Continent”. Almost led to war amongst the nations of Europe several times-Berlin Conference of was held - Presided over by Bismarck - Laid down guidelines for African expansion and played a certain role in keeping the peace.

16 Europe’s Overseas Empires
Scramble for Africa European leaders divided Africa with no regards of who lived there, in 1850 most of Africa was free, by 1914 all of Africa was conquered accept Ethiopia and Liberia. The Zulu Tribe in Africa led by Shaka Zulu tried to resist colonization, but were eventually overpowered. Boer War ( ) Africans suffered greatly; tribe after tribe, country after country fell to the Europeans.

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