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The Age of Imperialism (1850 – 1914). Imperialism: building empires by expanding territory and gaining colonies.

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of Imperialism (1850 – 1914). Imperialism: building empires by expanding territory and gaining colonies."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Age of Imperialism (1850 – 1914)

2 Imperialism: building empires by expanding territory and gaining colonies

3 Economic Origins of Imperialism The Industrial Revolution – Industrialized nations took control of less developed nations To gain raw materials for industry – Cotton, coal, metals, etc. To gain markets for goods – Manufactured goods could be sold in the colonies

4 Political and Social Origins of Imperialism  Nationalism Competition between industrial nations led to a race for overseas empires  The “White Man’s Burden” Many believed it was their duty to “civilize” people of other nations by introducing Christianity and Western culture  Social Darwinism Many claimed it was natural for “the weak to be taken over by the strong”

5 Major Imperial Powers Great Britain France Germany Russia The United States Japan

6 Imperialized Areas Powerful industrial nations established empires in: – Africa – Asia – Oceania (Australia, New Zealand, and surrounding islands)

7 Imperialism in 1914

8 Europeans Colonize Africa

9 The Scramble for Africa During the late 1800s Europeans began exploring the interior parts of Africa By the 1880s, European nations were racing to colonize African lands

10 Slide 10 What did this look like?

11 Slide 11 The Rationale Think about the last two units (Revolutions, Industrial Revolution) - how did we get here? Nationalism - large colonies meant power Industrialization - vast access to natural resources and cheap labor Humanitarianism - Europeans thought it was their duty to civilize and uplift African people Social Darwinism - Survival of the fittest people

12 Slide 12 Nationalism (1800-1914) French Revolution and Napoleon spread nationalism throughout Europe Pride in one’s country was based upon industrial production, military strength, and size of empire

13 Slide 13 Industrialization (1750-1900) Increased population in Europe Great technological advances - military, transportation, and communications Continued economic expansion requires more resources and markets

14 Slide 14 Humanitarianism Christian missionaries saw Africa and Asia as fertile ground for converts Cultural superiority - Europeans must “save” the rest of the world Must stop the Arab slave trade in Africa (still in practice in North/East Africa)

15 Slide 15 Scramble for Africa Prior to the Age of Imperialism, Europeans only controlled port towns (except for Portugal who had two larger colonies) British took South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Gambia in the mid-1800s

16 Slide 16 Scramble for Africa Between 1875 and 1900 European control of Africa went from 10% to 90% Only two nations, Liberia (home to many freed American slaves) and Ethiopia remained independent

17 What is this images communicating

18 The Berlin Conference European nations met in Berlin, Germany to settle arguments over African lands European powers divided all of Africa (except Ethiopia and Liberia) and drew up new borders – Did not consider ethnic or language differences of African tribes – Africans had no say in the decisions


20 The British Empire (1920s) “The Sun never sets on the British Empire”

21 The United States’ Empire (1900)

22 The Spanish-American War (1898) Causes – U.S. wanted to help Cuba win independence from Spain U.S. had economic interests in Cuba U.S. saw Spain’s control of Cuba as a test of the Monroe Doctrine – Monroe Doctrine: stated that the Americas were off limits to further European colonization – U.S. wanted to build an empire U.S. needed raw materials and markets for its goods Strong nationalism – Americans wanted their nation to be powerful, wealthy, and competitive with the European powers

23 U.S. newspapers blamed Spain for explosion of USS Maine Effects U.S. quickly defeated Spain and became a world power U.S. acquired Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Philippines, and Guam U.S. temporarily occupied Cuba and set up a military government Cuba and the Philippines eventually gained independence The Spanish-American War (1898)

24 Intervention in Latin America Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine – Declared the U.S. as the police power of the Western Hemisphere – Established U.S. “economic imperialism” throughout Latin America Panama – U.S. supported Panama’s independence from Colombia in exchange for the right to build and control the Panama Canal

25 Panama Canal

26 Japanese Empire (1905)

27 Japan Opens Up Since the 1600’s, Japan had practiced a policy of isolationism, in which it cut itself off from the outside world In the 1850’s, the United States Navy forced Japan to open its ports to trade

28 Japanese Imperialism Modernized economy and military – Japan built factories and needed raw materials to make manufactured goods – Japan quickly built a modern navy

29 War with China – Japan and China competed for trading rights in Korea – Japan defeated China and took control of Korea and Manchuria Japanese Imperialism

30 Russo-Japanese War – Russia tried to step in and take control of Korea and Manchuria – Japan defeated Russia and became a world power Japanese Imperialism


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