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Scramble for Africa Chapter 11 Section 1. Main Idea  Ignoring claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans established colonies.

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Presentation on theme: "Scramble for Africa Chapter 11 Section 1. Main Idea  Ignoring claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans established colonies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scramble for Africa Chapter 11 Section 1

2 Main Idea  Ignoring claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans established colonies.  African nations continue to feel the effects of the colonial presence more than 100 years later.

3 Introduction  Industrialization stirred ambitions in many European nations.  Europeans wanted more resources to fuel their industrial production.  They competed for new markets for their goods. Many looked to Africa.

4 Imperialism  Colonial powers seized vast areas of Africa during the 19 th and early 20 th century.  This seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country is called imperialism.  Stronger countries dominated the political, economic and social life of the weaker countries.

5 Africa Before European Domination  Mid 1800s, African peoples were divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups.  Most continued to follow traditional beliefs. Some converted to Islam or Christianity.  Spoke more than 1,000 different languages.  Ranged from large empires to independent villages.

6 Europeans in Africa  Europeans had contact with Africans as early as  Europeans controlled 10% of Africa’s land. Mainly on the coast.  Europeans had a difficult time going into the interior. Rivers were hard to navigate. Disease  Steam powered ships made it possible to explore the interior.

7 Forces Driving Imperialism  1.Economic Factors – Industrial Revolution provided Europeans the need for larger markets  2.Political Factors – Territory = power  3.Social Factors – Empires were viewed as a measure of national pride

8 Belief in European Superiority  Race for colonies also grew out of a strong sense of national pride.  Empire = measure of national greatness.  As competition intensified, each country was determined to plant its flag on as much of the world as possible.

9 European “Superiority”  Europeans believed that they were better than other peoples.  The belief that one race is superior to others is called racism.  This was a reflection of Social Darwinism.  Charles Darwin’s idea of survival of the fittest was applied to society.  Those who were the fittest enjoyed wealth and were superior to others.

10 Push for Expansion  Missionaries also pushed for expansion.  They worked to convert peoples of Asia, Africa and the Pacific Islands to Christianity.  Missionaries believed that European rule was the best way to end evil practices, such as the slave trade.  They also wanted to “civilize” or “westernize” the peoples of the foreign land.

11 Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa  Several factors contributed to the European’s conquest of Africa.  The main factor – Technological superiority Maxim gun – world’s first automatic machine gun Africans – outdated weapons Steam Engines  Africans lacked a sense of nationalism. Easy to play rival groups against each other.

12 Questions 1. Why did the Europeans colonize Africa? 2. What is the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country called? 3. Explain the factors driving imperialism? 4. How did Social Darwinism play a role in imperialism? 5. What factors contributed to the Europeans conquest of Africa?

13 The Division of Africa  Scramble for Africa began around  The discoveries of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) in South Africa increased European interest in colonizing the continent.  No European power wanted to be left out.

14 Berlin Conference Divides Africa  The competition was so fierce that European countries feared war among themselves.  To prevent potential conflict, 14 European nations met at the Berlin Conference in to lay down the rules for the division of Africa.  They agreed that any country could claim land as long as they notified other nations and showed they could control the area.

15 Dividing a Continent  Europeans divided the continent without considering the native groups.  African rulers were not invited to attend the conference.  By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent.

16 Africa

17 Shaping Colonies  Africans did not buy European products.  Europeans turned colonies into plantations and mineral mines.

18 Three Groups Clash over South Africa  South Africa’s history consists of fighting over its land and resources by Africans, Dutch and British.  Ethnic groups had been competing over the lands of Africa for 100 years.

19 Zulus Fight the British  Zulu chief, Shaka, organized a highly disciplined army but still lost control of southern Africa to the British.

20 Boers and British Settle the Cape  Boers = Dutch farmers  Settled the Cape of Good Hope.  British and Boers disagreed on policies regarding land and slaves.  Great Trek – forcing of thousands of Boers from the southern tip.  Boers were unable to keep out invaders and blamed the British.

21 Boer War  First modern “total” war.  Total war = war against armies and civilians  British burned Boer farms, imprisoned women and children in concentration camps.  1902 – British established the Union of South Africa.

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23 Questions 1. What increased the interest in Africa in the 1800s? 2. What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference? 3. What is a total war?


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