2Main IdeaIgnoring claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states, Europeans established colonies.African nations continue to feel the effects of the colonial presence more than 100 years later.
3IntroductionIndustrialization stirred ambitions in many European nations.Europeans wanted more resources to fuel their industrial production.They competed for new markets for their goods.Many looked to Africa.
4ImperialismColonial powers seized vast areas of Africa during the 19th and early 20th century.This seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country is called imperialism.Stronger countries dominated the political, economic and social life of the weaker countries.
5Africa Before European Domination Mid 1800s, African peoples were divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups.Most continued to follow traditional beliefs.Some converted to Islam or Christianity.Spoke more than 1,000 different languages.Ranged from large empires to independent villages.
6Europeans in AfricaEuropeans had contact with Africans as early as 1450.Europeans controlled 10% of Africa’s land.Mainly on the coast.Europeans had a difficult time going into the interior.Rivers were hard to navigate.DiseaseSteam powered ships made it possible to explore the interior.
7Forces Driving Imperialism 1. Economic Factors – Industrial Revolution provided Europeans the need for larger markets2. Political Factors – Territory = power3. Social Factors – Empires were viewed as a measure of national pride
8Belief in European Superiority Race for colonies also grew out of a strong sense of national pride.Empire = measure of national greatness.As competition intensified, each country was determined to plant its flag on as much of the world as possible.
9European “Superiority” Europeans believed that they were better than other peoples.The belief that one race is superior to others is called racism.This was a reflection of Social Darwinism.Charles Darwin’s idea of survival of the fittest was applied to society.Those who were the fittest enjoyed wealth and were superior to others.
10Push for Expansion Missionaries also pushed for expansion. They worked to convert peoples of Asia, Africa and the Pacific Islands to Christianity.Missionaries believed that European rule was the best way to end evil practices, such as the slave trade.They also wanted to “civilize” or “westernize” the peoples of the foreign land.
11Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa Several factors contributed to the European’s conquest of Africa.The main factor – Technological superiorityMaxim gun – world’s first automatic machine gunAfricans – outdated weaponsSteam EnginesAfricans lacked a sense of nationalism.Easy to play rival groups against each other.
12Questions Why did the Europeans colonize Africa? What is the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country called?Explain the factors driving imperialism?How did Social Darwinism play a role in imperialism?What factors contributed to the Europeans conquest of Africa?
13The Division of Africa Scramble for Africa began around 1880. The discoveries of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) in South Africa increased European interest in colonizing the continent.No European power wanted to be left out.
14Berlin Conference Divides Africa The competition was so fierce that European countries feared war among themselves.To prevent potential conflict, 14 European nations met at the Berlin Conference in to lay down the rules for the division of Africa.They agreed that any country could claim land as long as they notified other nations and showed they could control the area.
15Dividing a ContinentEuropeans divided the continent without considering the native groups.African rulers were not invited to attend the conference.By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent.
17Shaping Colonies Africans did not buy European products. Europeans turned colonies into plantations and mineral mines.
18Three Groups Clash over South Africa South Africa’s history consists of fighting over its land and resources by Africans, Dutch and British.Ethnic groups had been competing over the lands of Africa for 100 years.
19Zulus Fight the British Zulu chief, Shaka, organized a highly disciplined army but still lost control of southern Africa to the British.
20Boers and British Settle the Cape Boers = Dutch farmersSettled the Cape of Good Hope.British and Boers disagreed on policies regarding land and slaves.Great Trek – forcing of thousands of Boers from the southern tip.Boers were unable to keep out invaders and blamed the British.
21Boer War First modern “total” war. Total war = war against armies and civiliansBritish burned Boer farms, imprisoned women and children in concentration camps.1902 – British established the Union of South Africa.