Presentation on theme: "Imperialism 1875-1914 Red-coated British soldiers stand at attention around a royal pavilion during a ceremony in India. Britain’s Queen Victoria took."— Presentation transcript:
1ImperialismRed-coated British soldiers stand at attention around a royal pavilion during a ceremony in India. Britain’s Queen Victoria took the title Empress on India in 1876.
2Vocabulary Raw materials Social Darwinism Christianity Empires Arbitrary bordersTechnologyInnovationEthnocentric
3So What is Imperialism?Imperialism: a policy of conquering and ruling other lands
4Competition Between Nations So who do you think was the most powerful nation?Think Industrial Revolution!
5CompetitionIn the mid 1800’s Britain was the most powerful nation in the worldIndustrialization was higher than any other countryProduced more goodsBritish Navy guarded the oceans, why?British banks and industrializationThe British Navy guarded the oceans so that those goods could be shipped safely to ports around the globe.British banks loaned the money needed to build factories, mines, and railroads worldwide.
6CompetitionLate 1800s two countries were challenging Britain’s economic leadership.Germany and the USFaced with possible decline of power, Britain looked to its colonies for markets and resources
7Competition Pt. 3The French and Dutch as well as other industrialized nations needed raw materials (rubber, copper, gold, and cotton) to make manufactured goodsThese nations established colonies around the world and relied on raw materials imported from their colonies to make a variety of products
8Who Colonized What?Spain and Portugal attempted to build new empires in AfricaAustria-Hungary moved to the BalkansRussia expanded into Caucasus, Central Asia, and SiberiaOther countries that had no colonies felt the need to acquire themBelgium, Italy, and Germany all took over lands in Africa
9Who Colonized What? US and Japan Interested in overseas expansionInterested in East AsiaUS tied to Latin AmericaEuropeans viewed an empire as a measure of national statureSocial Darwinism: ;;;;; European culture was superior to other cultures and the Europeans had a right to take over
10Why? Needed Raw Materials Social Darwinism Bringing the “superior” civilization to conquered areas.Spread ChristianityEuropeans justified expansion into Africa and other areas was bringing their “superior” civilization to their conquering areas. (Social DarwinismMissionaries were sent to teach about christianity, partially done to STOP the spread of Islam
11Why would the Europeans think they were “superior?” Food For ThoughtWhy would the Europeans think they were “superior?”Due to the Industrial Revolution, Europeans regarded their new technology as proof they were better. (weaponry, telegraph, railroads)Reflection of racism.Europeans believed that they had the right and duty to bring the results of their progress to other countries.Whats racism? The belief that one race is superior to others
12Thus, the Race for Colonies National prideThus, the Race for ColoniesTo be politically powerful it was thought (in European countries) you had to have a large empireGrew out of a strong sense of national pride as well as from economic competition
13Europeans altered the way of life on EVERY continent ImperialismEuropeans altered the way of life on EVERY continent
14Bell ringer: Read this selection from Rudyard Kipling’s The White Man's Burden (1899) and answer the following questions:Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child.1. What does he mean by “the White Man’s Burden”?2. What was the exile of which he spoke?3. What does the word captives indicate?
17PRIMARY SOURCEI contend that we [Britons] are the first race in the world, and the moreof the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race It is ourduty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and weshould keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territorysimply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, themost human, most honourable race the world possesses.(CECIL RHODES, Confession of Faith, 1877)What attitude about the Britishdoes Rhodes’s statement display?
18Scramble for AfricaPre-colonial AfricaColonial Africa
19Things to note:Europeans wanted more resources to fuel their industrial productionAfrica was a source for raw materials and market for industrial products
20Before European Domination Africans were divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groupsMany continued their traditional beliefsMany converted to Islam and ChristianityAlthough Europeans were able to conquer some of sub- Saharan Africa, the powerful African armies were able to keep Europeans out for many yearsIt was hard for Europeans to go into Africa
21Before African Domination Explorers, Missionaries, and Humanitarians who opposed European/American slave trade were allowed in
22Congo Henry Stanley explored the Congo River King Leopold II of Belgium became interested.. Wanted to obtain Congo1908 gave the land to Belgium. Now known as the Belgium CongoPrimary motives for Leopold was to abolish slave trade and promote Christianity.BUT he licensed companies that exploited Africans (10 million Congolese died) so he gave the land to Belgium
23European Superiority Racism Social Darwinism “Survival of the Fittest” was applied to human societyThose who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were consideredsuperior to others. According to the theory, non-Europeans were considered tobe on a lower scale of cultural and physical development because they had notmade the scientific and technological progress that Europeans had.
24PRIMARY SOURCEI contend that we [Britons] are the first race in the world, and the moreof the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race It is ourduty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and weshould keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territorysimply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, themost human, most honourable race the world possesses.(CECIL RHODES, Confession of Faith, 1877)What attitude about the Britishdoes Rhodes’s statement display?
25What is the Scramble for Africa? The time period between 1880 and 1914 in which European countries competed to claim more African territory in an attempt to keep other countries from gaining too much power
26Europe and Africa How did Europeans create great empires? Expanded territorial claims in AfricaWhy did they desire this?The belief that a large empire was needed in order to be politically powerful.How were they able to conquer?Advanced technology (superior weapons, transportation technology [steamboat])Also technology and innovation brought positive change: Medical care improvedThe steamboat helped Europeans explore areas on the interior of the African continentWere able to treat malaria