3 Sassanid Empire (224-600 C.E) History: Ardashir, a descendent of an ancestor named Sasan, defeated the Parthians around 224 C.E and established the Sassanid Empire.He established Zoroastrianism as the official religion of this empire.Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia.
4 Sassanid Empire (224-600 C.E) Culture: Zoroastrianism was the main religion of the Sassanid Empire.Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion which is directed under one god: Ahura Mazda.Built fire temples to promote Zoroastrianism among the Empire.Encouraged marriage with people of the same faith, but wasn’t a requirement of the religion.As expressions and aspects of Creation, Ahura Mazda emanated seven "sparks", the Amesha Spentas ("Bounteous Immortals"), that are each the hypostasis and representative of one aspect of that Creation.
5 Sassanid Empire (224-600 C.E) Life: Society was divided into four classes: priests, warriors, secretaries, commoners.At the center of the caste system was the Shahanshah who ruled over all the nobles in the Sassanid Empire.Created works of silver, and silk fabrics which was testify to the sedentary lifestyle of the warrior elite.Sassanid farmers pioneered in planting cotton, sugar cane, rice, citrus trees, eggplants and other crops adopted from India and China.
7 Muhammad (Peace Be Unto Him) The man behind the turban
8 Who is this mystery man? Muhammad = “worthy of praise” Born in 570 in Mecca to a prominent familyOrphaned and lived w/ uncleMarried Khadija (15 yrs older) – had lots of kidsAccording to Islamic tradition, he received his first revelation in a cave that he retreated to for meditation in the month of RamadanThree years later, he began publically preaching these revelationsMigrated to Medina to escape persecution in 622 (This marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar)By his death in 632, he united most of Arabia under Islamfrequently retreated to Mount Hira to meditate and consider his spirituality (oooh)Who is this mystery man?This is Mount Hira.
9 How did this mystery come about? AKA the Origins of Islam Muhammad went and sat in a cave, thinking about lifeThe Angel Gabriel gave him a message from GodAccording to Islam, God gives Qur’an through angel Gabriel to prophet Muhammad.Thus, Qur’an is believed to be the perfect words of Allah.The followers becomes a Muslim, meaning one who makes Islam, or “submission,” to the will of God.Then they wrote down all the words and made the Qur’an.
11 Islamic Beliefs Five Pillars of Islam: Pilgrimage (Hajj) Fasting (Sawm)Almsgiving (Zakat)Prayer (Salam)One God and Muhammad is his Messenger (Shahada)
12 Islamic Practices Followers of Islam and known as Muslims Varies from Sects of IslamSunniNamaz five times a dayShiites (Depends on sect of Shiites)Dua three times a dayFastingMonth of Ramadan (Lunar Calendar)Also includes acts of prayer and devotion at night.
14 The role of the CaliphThe caliphs -political leaders of the Muslim community in the earlier eras of Islamic history: SUCCESSORS TO MUHAMMADUnites all Muslim nations, is only system that is fully approved by Muslim theology.Caliphs are chosen differently:Sunnis believed that Caliphs should be chosen by election by Muslim representatives.Shiites believed that the Caliph should be an Imam descended in a line from the Ahl al-Bayt, or the descendents of Ali.
15 The origins of the Caliphate The caliphate was the result of Muhammad‘s death. There was a need for a successor.The first 4 Caliphs were Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, Uthman, and AliAfter the death of Ali, Islam branched into Sunnis, Shi’ites, and Kharjites.Kharjites rebelled from the system itself because of Ali’s acceptance of arbitration.Kharjites claim righteousness for themselves.Today all three divisions of Islam still exist, though the majority of Muslims are Sunni or Shi’ite.
16 The continuation of the Caliphate The caliphate lasted from 632 to 1258 C.E.the line of Caliphs: the original 4 caliphs, followed by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.System inactive since 1920s; reestablishment suggested by some groupsPeaceful and forceful methods have been used to push reestablishment; Al-Queda is an example of a violent activist group, and Hizb Ut-Tahrir is an example of a peaceful activist groupThe continuation of the Caliphate
17 Abu BakrContinued and confirmed Five Pillars of Islam:(1) avowal of a single god and Muhammad as is messenger(2) prayer x5 every day(3) fasting during lunar month (Ramadan)(4) paying alms(5) making pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during lifeFather of Muhammad’s favorite wife and one of earliest believers of IslamSucceeded Muhammad as caliphQuelled the Bedouin revolt called the Ridda and realized the need to expand territory beyond Arabian peninsulaStarted hostilities against the Byzantines and SassanidsOrdered secretaries of Muhammad to organize the Prophet’s revelations into a book: the Quran
18 UmarAnother of Muhammad’s fathers-in-law; appointed by Abu BakrAdded title Amir al-Mu'minin, “Commander of the Faithful,” to his title to signify that the caliphs were spiritual as well as political leadersFocused on expanding the Islamic territory beyond the Arabian PeninsulaConquered lands: Syria, Egypt, Iraq, and much of PersiaKharaj and jizya taxes, tax on landowners and peasants and tax on non-Muslims to practice own religion, respectively
19 Assassinated by Egyptians Uthman Ibn Affan ( )Standardized the Qu’ranFaced many political difficultiesSome were mad that Ali did not get the caliph positionHe promotion of his Umayyad kin brought about criticismHis attempt to establish a one true text of the Qu’ran- some thought he was tampering with the words of GodAssassinated by Egyptians
20 He was killed by Kharijites, essentially his own supporters. Ali ( )The majority of Muslims did not support him, but he still seized the postCausing conflict amongst MuslimsConflicts led to formation of 3 sectsAli’s supporters were ShiitesSmall number of the Shiites split off into another group called KharijitesThe rest majority of Muslims were SunnisHe was killed by Kharijites, essentially his own supporters.
22 Geographical Spread of Islam After Muhammad’s death, the empire began spreading beyond the Arabian Peninsula, reaching Iran and Egypt.In the 8th century, the empire spread onto the Iberian Peninsula and Indus Valley reached the height of its power.Religious tolerance was practiced because of the wide diversity throughout the empire.MedinaLocated on the western Arabian Peninsula (Hejaz Region).Capital of the Islamic Empire until 661.Oasis city- in the most fertile area of the Hejaz region.Surrounded by hills and mountains.Was originally known as Yathrib and occupied by Jewish refugees.MeccaLocated in the desert.No vegetation except cacti.Climate was hot and dry with limited water sources.City has less undulation- Very easy to access- for pilgrimages.
23 The Spread of IslamMuhammad’s Hometown - Mecca: Lies in barren mountain valley between Yemen, Syria, and Red Sea coast of ArabiaHijra- “the flight” from Mecca to Medina (“the City of the Prophet”) because Islam was not widely accepted-Marks turning point of Islam and is the beginning date on Islamic calendarsIslam kept strong with nationalism in the Arabic world and is still rapidly spreading
24 Geography of the Arabian Peninsula Mostly dominated by desert.Southern end of peninsula has more rainfall because of monsoons.Has coastal plains and several oasis in the east.Mountain ranges to the southwest.Varying climate by region, but has limited rainfall and high temperatures throughout most of the area.
25 Arabian Peninsula Geography Enormous seas of sand- ”Empty Quarter”- isolating inner Arabia-Southern regions knew more about Africa, India, and Persian Gulf-Exceptions were caravan tradersGeographyIncludes the Arabian Peninsula, the Persian Empire, Northern Africa, and the majority of SpainCalled Arabian Subcontinent because on top of tectonic platesCentral Plateau with fertile valleys and pasturesRange of deserts in northStretches of dry and marshy coastland with coral reefs on Red SeaRange of mountains west of Red Sea
27 RISE AND FALL OF UMAYYAD AND ABBASID EMPIRES 27
28 Umayyad The first Islamic dynasty in 661-750. After an agreement with Muhammad in 630, succeeded in preserving their economic influence and gradually reintegrated into the political power structure.Abd al-Malik succeeded in consolidating Umayyad rule, and proceeded with a series of administrative reforms including the conversion of the bureaucracy from Greek to Arabic, and the minting of new currency.Abbasid eventually succeeded in toppling the last Umayyad caliph, Mar wan II, in 750.28
29 AbbasidRose in the year 750 to replace the Umayyad dynasty by uniting several groups which had grievances against the Umayyad.Had a direct familiar tie to Mohammed.Dynasty lasted 500 years until it was wiped out by a grandson of Genghis Khan.Major cause of fall of the dynasty was failure to find a good solution to the difficult problem of holding together a very large empire in the fairly primitive circumstances of the early middle ages.29
31 Rise of Ottoman Empire 1299 – 1923 C.E. It was the largest and the most influential Muslim empire.Primarily located in the Mediterranean. It spread into Europe. They arose from Anatolia.Sultan Suleiman was the greatest leader because he expanded the empire and caused a lot of cultural history. Absolute powerCapital: IstanbulCentralized governmentLarge international trade center/routes- basis of economyGhazi emirates made up Turkish AnatoliaOsman I expanded his emirate towards ByzantineDecline in Serbian influence allowed Ottoman to expandConquered Constantinople cementing its position of power31
32 Height of powerSpanned three countries (Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. )Had 29 provincesAlso had control oversea landsConstantinople (Istanbul) is the capitalHad Islamic culturesMilitary was key in advancing the EmpireIslamic state, but tolerant towards other monotheistic religionsGovernment run by religious lawTaxed on all goods passing in and out of the empire
33 Fall of Ottoman EmpireTerritorial, economic, and cultural growth stopped in 1566The decline was because of a population increase and a refusal to modernize society (Economic structure failure)It’s diverse region means that a single economy cannot meet the needs of all of themAlso during World War I they sided with the central powerOnce the central powers were defeated, the Ottomans retreated to AnatoliaThen they soon feel apart and that part became Turkey
36 SAFAVID EMPIRE! 1502-1722 Beginnings and Society/Religion The Empire started as a group of people from Turkish tribes and people of Shiite-Sufi descent.It covered most of Iran, and parts of Turkey and GeorgiaTheocracy structureState Religion: Shi’a Islam.Economic strength came from trade and location.The empire made Iran a center of art, architecture, poetry and philosophy.The Empire ended when it became corrupt.Beauracracy/LandownersShahCommonersThe Monarchy was in the form of a triangle: Shah (the ruler), the bureaucracy and then the common people.The Shahs were thought to be semi- divine and was also thought to have a direct connection to the prophet Muhammad.The senior positions in the bureaucracy were appointed by merit, and were usually people from other countries. This decreased competition.The Shahs had their faces printed on cups so the common people would think they were friends
37 A tale of two cities- Isfahan and Istanbul + Isfahan became the capital of Iran; 1598+ Both cities looked physically different+ Istanbul's harbor was the primary seaport+ Isfahan was far from the sea, and only received European visitors rarely+Both had similar characteristics; favored walking, women seldom appeared in public, streets were narrow, wives could retain property after marriage, and could appear in court. Everyone wore similar clothing.+ Isfahan was not a true cosmopolitancapitalMiniature of the Safavid Empire
38 Economic Crisis and Political Collapse Deep pile carpets were main source of foreign trade, but most people farmed or herded for a livingIn the late 16th century, inflation from cheap silver spread to Iran, and trade declined because of silk monopoly mismanagementThe country couldn’t pay off the army or gov’tGov’t lost support from the nomads, since they tried to take the nomads’ land to pay off taxesGov’t became so weak that Afgans were able to capture Isfahan, leading to the end of Safavid rule
40 Mughal Empire:Under the Mughal rules India became united under one rule and had very prosperous cultural and political years.Akbar- true founder of Mughal Empire. He created the establishment of an efficient administrative system that held the empire together and stimulated trade and economic development.Religion: Sunni Islam of the Hanafi Madhab.Gained significant conquests in the Deccan Plateau region.
41 Mughal EmpireMansabs- A system of honorific ranks that defined each official’s position.Adopted Hindu political rituals and customs to be accepted into Hindu society.Arts flourished at this time; the most prominent achievements were in architecture, manuscript illustration, and painting.Empire decline: Some of the regions under the Mughal’s control started to experience economic growth and in time felt that they were strong enough to stand alone. They refused to cooperate therefore with the Mughal’s and were often at arms as well.
43 IBN BATTUTA 1304-circa 1377 Islamic scholar and explorer Famous for his travel accounts of the known Muslim worldIs said to have even traveled farther than Marco Polo
44 IBN SINAOne of the most famous Islamic philosopher and physicianWrote scientific and medical books/encyclopediasConsidered to be one of the fathers of early medicine
45 ISLAMIC ARTS, MEDICINE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY
46 Islamic Arts and Science -Architecture: palaces, mosques.-Calligraphy: Beautiful writing-Discouraged the use of pictorial imagery-Carpet weaving-Astronomy: Unique to the Islamic faith, solve practical problems-Many great philosophers
47 Medicine and Technology Muslim hospitals pioneered the practices of diagnosis, cure, and future prevention.Hospitals open 24 hrs.Al-Razi: developed treatments for small pox and measlesAdvancement in field of pharmacologyAdvancement in Mathematics
48 Arts&Science Arts: Many artistic techniques adapted from the Romans. Many schools were created, resulting in many educated scholars.Invention of paper allowed for printing of books, which spread knowledge and education.Works of philosophers such as Sophocles and Plato were translated into Arab and printed into books.Ibn Haiyan: “Father of Chemistry” introduced experimental investigation and wrote books on chemistry and alchemyArts:Many artistic techniques adapted from the Romans.Made many sculptures made out of stuccoUsed glass for cosmetics containers and bottles.They used parchment from animals skins to write books, which were based on the format of the Qur`an.Textiles: often made with expensive materials; covered buildings, furnishings, and mosques.
49 Medicine&Technology Technology: Advanced water cleaning systems and water transportation that resulted in better agricultureTar roads and pavementsAcequia: a waterway introduced by SpainBuilt several damsDevelopment of paper allowed for printing of booksMedicine:Doctors recorded down observations and created cures for many diseases.Main Doctors- Ibn Riza (who wrote about measles and smallpox) and Ibn Nafis (who explained the circulatory system).
51 ISLAM TODAY The Islamic New Year begins on the day Muhammad left Mecca to travel to Medina.Islam is the dominant religion in most Middle Eastern countries.A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims The basic unit of Islamic society is the family, and Islam defines the obligations and legal rights of family members. A man may have up to four wives if he believes he can treat them equally, while a woman may have only one husband. Starting in the 20th century, Muslim social reformers argued against these and other practices such as polygamy, with varying success.
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