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Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 9: The Sasanid Empire and the Rise of Islam.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 9: The Sasanid Empire and the Rise of Islam."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 9: The Sasanid Empire and the Rise of Islam

2 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Sasanid Empire ( ) Sasanid Empire established in 224 and controlled Persia and Mesopotamia. Zoroastrianism – official religion. Religion began to replace citizenship, language, and ethnicity as a persons link to a group.

3 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World Muhammad and His Message Muhammads Early Life Born in Mecca. Entered caravan business. Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

4 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World Muhammad and His Message Muhammads Early Life Muhammads Spiritual Transformation Received revelations from Allah around 610 AD. Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

5 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World Muhammad and His Message Muhammads Early Life Muhammads Spiritual Transformation The Quran Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

6 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World Muhammads Migration to Medina Conflict at Mecca Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

7 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World Muhammads Migration to Medina (Yathrib) Conflict at Mecca The Hijra – Flight marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

8 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World Muhammads Migration to Medina Conflict at Mecca The Hijra The Umma – single group formed to recognize Muhammad as the Messenger of God and the core organization of the Islamic state. Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

9 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World Muhammads Migration to Medina Conflict at Mecca The Hijra The Umma The Seal of the Prophets Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad. People of the book Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

10 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World The Establishment of Islam in Arabia Muhammads Return to Mecca Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

11 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World The Establishment of Islam in Arabia Muhammads Return to Mecca The Five Pillars of Islam Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

12 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World The Establishment of Islam in Arabia Muhammads Return to Mecca The Five Pillars of Islam Profession of faith - Allah as God Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

13 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World The Establishment of Islam in Arabia Muhammads Return to Mecca The Five Pillars of Islam Profession of faith - Allah as God Daily Prayer – 5 times a day. Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

14 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World The Establishment of Islam in Arabia Muhammads Return to Mecca The Five Pillars of Islam Allah as God Daily Prayer Fasting during Ramadan Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

15 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World The Establishment of Islam in Arabia Muhammads Return to Mecca The Five Pillars of Islam Allah as God Daily Prayer Fasting during Ramadan Alms for the weak and poor Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

16 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World The Establishment of Islam in Arabia Muhammads Return to Mecca The Five Pillars of Islam Allah as God Daily Prayer Fasting during Ramadan Alms for the weak and poor Pilgrimage to Mecca - Hajj Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

17 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 9 Rise of Islam

18 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 9 The Rise of Islam

19 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Prophet and His World The Establishment of Islam in Arabia Muhammads Return to Mecca The Five Pillars of Islam Islamic Law: The Sharia Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam

20 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Early Caliphs and the Umayyad Dynasty The Caliphate The Expansion of Islam, C.E. Chapter 9: The Expansion of Islam

21 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Early Caliphs and the Umayyad Dynasty The Caliph The Expansion of Islam Chapter 9: The Expansion of Islam The Expansion of Islam, C.E.

22 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam Division of Islamic Followers Mohammads death in 632 caused a problem with succession. Caliph or leader appointed as a spiritual and political leader to continue the faith. Abu Bakr ( ) united Bedouin tribes to protect the new religion against outside threats.

23 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 9: The Rise of Islam Sunni – Muslims that believe that any Muslim that is a true follower of the faith can be both the political and spiritual leader of Islam. Approximately 80-90% of all Muslims. Shia (Shiite) – Muslims that believe that the true leader of the faith must be a direct descendent of Ali.

24 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Early Caliphs and the Umayyad Dynasty The Caliph The Expansion of Islam - Jihad Chapter 9: The Expansion of Islam The Expansion of Islam, C.E.

25 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Early Caliphs and the Umayyad Dynasty The Caliph The Expansion of Islam The Umayyad Dynasty Chapter 9: The Expansion of Islam

26 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Early Caliphs and the Umayyad Dynasty The Caliph The Expansion of Islam The Umayyad Dynasty Policy Toward Conquered Peoples Allowed religious freedom. Non-Muslims paid a special tax. Chapter 9: The Expansion of Islam

27 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Early Caliphs and the Umayyad Dynasty The Caliph The Expansion of Islam The Shia The Umayyad Dynasty Policy Toward Conquered Peoples Umayyad Decline Decadent living by leaders. Resentment from conquered peoples. Chapter 9: The Expansion of Islam

28 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Abbasid Dynasty Abu al-Abbas Chapter 9: The Expansion of Islam

29 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Abbasid Dynasty Abu al-Abbas The Abbasid Dynasty Chapter 9: The Expansion of Islam

30 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Abbasid Dynasty Abu al-Abbas The Abbasid Dynasty Abbasid Administration Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam Agricultural Village, ca 1200 C.E.

31 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Abbasid Dynasty Abu al-Abbas The Abbasid Dynasty Abbasid Administration Used Persian model of bureaucratic rule. Central authority in Baghdad Used judges and religious leaders to set moral standards in each community. Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

32 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Expansion of Islam The Abbasid Dynasty Abu al-Abbas The Abbasid Dynasty Abbasid Administration Abbasid Decline Civil wars and provincial governors taking more authority than central ruler. Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

33 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World New Crops, Agricultural Experimentation, and Urban Growth The Spread of Food and Industrial Crops Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

34 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World New Crops, Agricultural Experimentation, and Urban Growth The Spread of Food and Industrial Crops Effects of New Crops Increase in food supplies Cotton – increased textile production Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

35 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World New Crops, Agricultural Experimentation, and Urban Growth The Spread of Food and Industrial Crops Effects of New Crops Agricultural Experimentation Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

36 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World New Crops, Agricultural Experimentation, and Urban Growth The Spread of Food and Industrial Crops Effects of New Crops Agricultural Experimentation Urban Growth Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

37 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World The Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone Overland Trade Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

38 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World The Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone Overland Trade Camels and Caravans Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

39 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World The Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone Overland Trade Camels and Caravans Maritime Trade Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam Slave Market, ca 1200 C.E.

40 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World The Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone Overland Trade Camels and Caravans Maritime Trade Banks Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

41 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World The Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone Overland Trade Camels and Caravans Maritime Trade Banks The Organization of Trade Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

42 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World The Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone Overland Trade Camels and Caravans Maritime Trade Banks The Organization of Trade Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

43 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World The Changing Status of Women The Quran and Women Harem Seclusion of women from men Women could own property; testify in court Women played an indirect role in Muslim society Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

44 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World The Changing Status of Women The Quran and Women Veiling of Women Strong patriarchal societies. Veiling present before Islam. Persian custom adopted by Muslims as the religion spread. Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

45 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Islamic Values and Cultural Exchanges The Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition Promotion of Islamic Values Establishment of religious schools – madraras Ulama (religious scholars), qadis (Islamic judges), and missionaries spread the religion. Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

46 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Islamic Values and Cultural Exchanges The Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition Promotion of Islamic Values Sufis Religious mystics Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

47 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Islamic Values and Cultural Exchanges The Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition Promotion of Islamic Values Sufis Sufi Missionaries Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

48 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Islamic Values and Cultural Exchanges The Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition Promotion of Islamic Values Sufis Sufi Missionaries Hajj Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

49 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Islamic Values and Cultural Exchanges Islam and the Cultural Traditions of Persia, India, and Greece Persian Influences on Islam Political organization. Language – (Arabic) Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

50 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Islamic Values and Cultural Exchanges Islam and the Cultural Traditions of Persia, India, and Greece Persian Influences on Islam Indian Influences on Islam Hindu numerals. Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

51 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Islamic Values and Cultural Exchanges Islam and the Cultural Traditions of Persia, India, and Greece Persian Influences on Islam Indian Influences on Islam Greek Influences on Islam Science Philosophical writings Medical writings and research Chapter 9: The Expansive Realm of Islam

52 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 9: Rise of Islam Contributions: Astrology Medicine (Infectious diseases, hospital organizations, value of cauterization, and cleanliness) Optics and chemistry – Alchemy Commerce Industry

53 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 9: Islamic Art

54 Copyright ©2002 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 9: Islamic Architecture


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