Presentation on theme: "The Origins of Islam. Standard 7.2.1 Identify the physical features and describe the climate of the Arabian peninsula, its relationship to surrounding."— Presentation transcript:
The Origins of Islam
Standard Identify the physical features and describe the climate of the Arabian peninsula, its relationship to surrounding bodies of land and water, and nomadic and sedentary ways of life.
Standard Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Christianity.
Background Knowledge We previously learned about Christianity in the Byzantine Empire. Islam was developing around the same time Based on the teachings of the prophet Muhammad. Like Judaism and Christianity, Islam was based on the worship of one god. Geography and culture of Arabia, where Islam began.
The Arabian Setting Arabia is a large peninsula more than 1,000 miles long. It is located in southwest Asia, between Mesopotamia and Africa.
The Arabian Setting
A Difficult Land Arabia is nearly surrounded by water. –The Persian Gulf lies to the east, the Arabian Sea to the south, and the Red Sea to the west. Arab sailors crossed those seas to trade with East Africa, India, and China.
A Difficult Land For most of its history, Arabians were able to avoid foreign conquest. Harsh environments –Nafud Desert natural barrier between southwest Asia. –Rub al-Khali “Empty Quarter,” covers much of the Arabian interior to the south. Nafud Desert Rub al-Khali Sarawat Mountains
A Difficult Land Rugged mountains along the western and southern edges of the Arabian Peninsula. –rainfall and conditions are better for settlement. Arabia has little water and no permanent rivers.
A Difficult Land Oasis - a fertile place in the desert where a spring or well provides a water supply.
A Tribal Culture Nomadic life - people move from place to place, with no fixed home. Sedentary life in oasis towns or trade centers. Both organized into tribes. –l–loyalty was to tribe and family, not rulers.
Nomads –Bedoiuns Herd sheep or goats Camels for transportation Sometimes raid other tribes for supplies
A Tribal Culture Sedentary Farmers and traders –Farmed lands around oases –Traded in towns along routes Mecca –Commercial center
The Story of Muhammad Mecca was a trading city, and a religious center. Kaaba –where people worshiped the local gods. Drew thousands of visitors
Muhammad’s Early Life Married a wealthy, widowed merchant named Khadija. Concern with the greed, corruption, and violence in Meccan society. –t–traditions of honor and duty were being ignored.
Muhammad retreated to a cave to pray and reflect. The angel Gabriel appeared before him and told him to spread God’s word.
The Rise of Islam Muhammad began to preach in the streets of Mecca. –He told Arabs to worship the one true God, called Allah in Arabic, and to give up their sinful ways. –Allah was the same God who had spoken to Abraham, Jesus, and the other prophets of Judaism and Christianity.
The Rise of Islam Final prophet with the most complete version of God’s truth. The Qur’an names this religion Islam. –Submission (to God)
The Rise of Islam Gradually, Muhammad began to win believers. They were called Muslims, or followers of Islam. Many Arabs were hostile to Muhammad’s message, however. They began to persecute Muhammad and his followers.
The Hijra Mecca Yathrib Medina 275 miles In 622, Muhammad and his followers flee “city of the prophet.”
The Hijra Muhammad continued his religious teaching and became Medina’s political and military leader. –He began to lead raiding parties on Mecca and its caravan trade.
The Hijra In 628, After several key victories the Muslims attempt the return to Mecca Treaty of Hudaybiyyah –Peace between the Muslims and the inhabitants of Mecca
The Hijra In 630, peace is broken –Muhammad returned to Mecca banned worship of the old gods and proclaimed Islam to be the religion of Arabia. Conversions throughout the Arabian Peninsula –united under Muslim rule Muhammad died two years later. –Islam continued to spread across the Middle East.