Presentation on theme: "6 th Grade Social Studies. The religion of Islam, based on the teachings of Muhammad, spread across the Arabian peninsula and far beyond to become a major."— Presentation transcript:
The religion of Islam, based on the teachings of Muhammad, spread across the Arabian peninsula and far beyond to become a major world religion.
Christianity had grown around the Roman Empire and spread into North Africa and Mesopotamia. Judaism, which had also grown in the eastern Mediterranean, reached as far as the oasis towns of western Arabia.
In the same region of Arabia, a new religion called Islam was born. Islam means “submit to the will of God” in Arabic, the Arab language. Followers of Islam are called Muslims- which translates “ones who submit to God.” The stories and teachings of Islam have been written down in the Quran, the most important book of Islam.
According to Muslim tradition, a boy named Muhhamad was born in the oasis city of Mecca about A.D. 570. Raised by and uncle who was a trader In time Muhammad mastered the skill of leading caravans
Muhammad’s skills caught the eye of a wealthy widow and merchant, Khadija. On her behalf, Muhammad traveled to the Fertile Crescent to trade goods When he returned from his journey, they married
His marriage to Khadija is said to have given him wealth and respect in busy Mecca, where they lived. Mecca lays on the main trading route through western Arabia. Attracted other visitors because of the Kaaba, Mecca’s temple. Honored the gods and goddesses worshipped by the people of Mecca
Muhammad often went to a mountain cave near Mecca to pray. When he was 40, “something” happened that would change the history of Arabia Muslims believe that Muhammad received a message from Allah. Allah is the Arabic word for God Over many years, Allah is said to have given other messages to Muhammad
Muhammad set out to teach people in Mecca about Allah. Over the next three years, his group of followers slowly grew He criticized the Meccans’ way of life and their belief in MANY gods. His disagreement w/ city leaders is said to have caused him and his followers to leave Mecca in 622
Moved over 200 miles from Mecca to another oasis town, Medina. Muhammad’s hijra- Arabic for “migration” – marked a major turning point in Islamic history The year of the hijra, 622, marks the starting point of the Islamic calendar A prophet’s mosque in Medina.
In 624 Muhammad led attacks on Meccan caravans, cutting off Mecca’s source of riches. Later, w/ peace agreements, he is said to have won Mecca’s surrender. After his victory in 630, Muhammad destroyed the statues of the gods and goddesses in the Kaaba and proclaimed Mecca a Muslim city. It is holy to Muslims to this day
In Islamic belief the Quran contains Allah’s teachings to Muhammad. The most important teaching was that there was only one God in the universe- Allah Serves as a guide for Muslims, as the Bible does for Jews and Christians. Through its words, Muslims learn about Allah’s teachings
Daily confession of faith (shahada) Daily confession of faith (shahada) Daily ritual prayer (salat) Daily ritual prayer (salat) Paying the alms tax (zakat) Paying the alms tax (zakat) Fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm) Fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm) Pilgrimmage to Mecca (hajj) Pilgrimmage to Mecca (hajj)
During the 100 years after the death of Muhammad, the Islamic community grew steadily. AD 750, followers of Islam could be found from Spain all the way to the Indus Valley (India). Arabic became the common language in many Islamic lands.
Around 5 million Muslims live in the United States today. Muslim customs often vary from one country to another. Nearly all Muslims honor the end of Ramadan with a joyful feast. People wear new clothes to celebrate the beginning of the month following the long fast.
Millions of Muslims from around the world still make the pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca every year. Muslims everywhere view the pilgrimage as one of the most important events in their lives. At home Muslim women take time to teach their children about the Quran. Muslim families have celebrations when sons or daughters memorize large parts of the Quran.
The modern city of Mecca, in Saudi Arabia, is the center of a world-wide Muslim community. For almost 1,400 years Islam has been anchored in both the life of Muhammad and the teachings of the Quran. The religion of Islam has shaped civilizations and human achievements.
According to Muslim belief, Muhammad, the founder of Islam, lived from AD 570 to 632. Muhammad preached that there was only one God- Allah. Muhammad journeyed from Mecca to Medina to 622. This event is called the hijra. Muhammad went on to become a powerful leader in Medina. Later the returned and proclaimed Mecca a holy city.
Muslims believe that the sacred book of Islam, the Quran, contains holy teaching that Muhammad received from Allah. The 5 Pillars of Islam from the Quran instruct Muslims about how they should honor Allah in their lives.