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THE ISLAMIC EMPIRE: HEIR OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. Obj: to trace the rapid spread of Islam by looking at factors that made it so attractive to believers ARABIAN.

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Presentation on theme: "THE ISLAMIC EMPIRE: HEIR OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. Obj: to trace the rapid spread of Islam by looking at factors that made it so attractive to believers ARABIAN."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE ISLAMIC EMPIRE: HEIR OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

2 Obj: to trace the rapid spread of Islam by looking at factors that made it so attractive to believers ARABIAN PENINSULA – FERTILE IN THE SOUTHWEST; DESERT EVERYWHERE ELSE POLYTHEISTIC PRE-ISLAM BEDOUINS: NOMADIC PEOPLES HEJAZI: MERCHANTS, MORE URBAN, STATIONARY MECCA: RELIGIOUS & TRADING CENTER, KABAH SANCTUARY Groups of people were different but respected each others customs; obligation to family, honor family, proud, generous, courageous. Shared religious traditions: 3 months war free, all prayed in Mecca at the Kabah, fighting not tolerated in Mecca

3 THE RISE OF ISLAM: SUBMISSION TO ALLAH MECCA :TRADING HUB, MANY DIFFERENT CULTURES, PEOPLE & RELIGIONS IN AND OUT OF AREA – CONTROLLED BY QURAISH MOHAMMED – BORN INTO QURAISH TRIBE, ORPHANED AT A YOUNG AGE, RAISED BY GRANDFATHER, CAME UNDER GUIDANCE OF A WEALTHY WOMAN, MARRIES HER 610 VISION OF THE ANGEL GABRIEL, PREACH GODS WORD, FINAL CULMINATION OF THE PROPHETIC TRADITION OF ABRAHAM & MOSES MUSLIM: ONE WHO SURRENDERS

4 PREACHING & CONVERSION ATTEMPTS TO CONVERT FAMILY FIRST – FEARS OF ECONOMIC DECLINE & PLACE AS LOCAL WORSHIP TRAVELS TO YATHRIB AT THEIR REQUEST 622 HIJRAH –BEGINNING OF MUSLIM CALENDAR NAME CHANGE TO MEDINA CITY OF THE PROPHET & MUHAMMAD POLITICAL & RELIGIOUS LEADER 630 ENTERS MECCA & QURAISH SUBMIT TO ISLAM, MONOTHEISM & CONTINUED TO THRIVE RELIGIOUSLY & ECONOMICALLY

5 RELIGIOUS TEACHINGS – 5 PILLARS OF ISLAM

6 SPREAD OF ISLAM DEATH – NO SUCCESSOR 1 ST 3 CALIPHS DEPUTY OF THE PROPHET UMAYYADS MILITARY CAMPAIGNS TO SUBDUE TRIBES NOT ACCEPTING OF NEW LEADER 651 CONQUEST OF PERSIA COMPLETE 646 CONTROL NORTH AFRICA 711 SPAIN EARLY SPREAD NOT RELIGIOUS CRUSADE – WANT REVENUE BUT RELIGIOUS ENTHUSIASM HELPS WEAKNESSES OF BYZ & PERSIANS DISCONTENT BY OPPRESSED OF BYZ & PERSIAN EMPERORS

7 SCHISM: SUNNI & SHIA (SHIITE) CALIPH UTHMAN – NOT POPULAR RIVALS APPOINT ALI – RELATIVE OF MUHAMMAD ALI MURDERED BY UTHMANS FAMILY 661 UMAYYAD CALIPH & RULED UNTIL 750 FROM DAMASCUS ALI FOLLOWERS DONT ACCEPT UMAYYADS SHIA (PARTY OR FACTION) MINORITY – ONLY BLOOD RELATION SUNNI – BEST CANDIDATE CAN RULE- HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 15% VS 85%

8 PHILOSOPHICAL, MEDICAL & MATHEMATICAL ADVANCES ARABIC TRANSLATIONS OF GREEK PHILOSOPHERS BY END OF 10 TH C. IBN SINA (AVICENNA) MUSLIM PHILOSOPHER: RECONCILE GREEK PHILOSOPHY W/ ISLAMIC THEOLOGY – DIFFICULT TASK MEDICAL DISCOVERIES IBN RUSD (AVERROES) COMMENTARIES ON PHILOSOPHY (ARISTOTLE) MAJOR INFLUENCE ON 13 TH C. SCHOLARS & WESTERN VIEWS OF ARISTOTLE ADAPTATION OF HINDU #S & USE OF 0 (ZERO)


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