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Chapter 5, Lesson 2 The Spread of Islam

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1 Chapter 5, Lesson 2 The Spread of Islam
It Matters Because: The religion of Islam continues to influence modern politics and society


3 The Muslim Empire When Muhammad died in 632, Muslims knew a strong leader would be required to keep the Islamic state united Chose new leader called a caliph, or “successor” Caliphate – a succession of caliphs similar to a dynasty first four caliphs were relatives or close friends of Muhammad, known as the Rashidun Caliphate Caliphs commanded military and spread Islam through war Arab Empire included all of SW Asia and NE Africa

4 The Umayyad Caliphate Second Caliphate, ruled from Damascus, in Syria
Expanded Empire deeper into Asia and across North Africa Before Muhammad, Arab warriors were divided by tribes Now united under Islam, they fought large armies and believed it was a religious duty to spread Islam Muslim attacks were swift and fierce

5 “People of the Book” In the early days of the Empire, Arabs allowed Christians and Jews to practice their own religion Jews and Christians were viewed as “People of the Book” – believe in one God and follow sacred writings As time passed, many conquered people accepted Islam and learned the Arabic language Today, the term “Arab” refers to an Arabic speaker, not strictly someone from Arabia

6 Islamic Spain Muslim warriors invaded Spain from Northern Africa
Cordoba became a major center of Islam One Muslim leader, Ibn Rushd practiced law and medicine and wrote philosophy Christians and Jews in Spain were mostly tolerated in Muslim Spain Not all Muslims were tolerant; Moses Maimonides fled Spain, running from a hostile Muslim group

7 Teaching & Trading Islam spread through peaceful means as well
A group called Sufis converted many to Islam through teaching Merchants in Southeast Asia taught and converted Indonesia today has the largest population of Muslims of any nation Some Muslims crossed Sahara and taught in West Africa

8 Division and Growth Many Muslims could not agree about who was the right successor to Muhammad Two groups, Sunnis & Shiites disagree about who should succeed Muhammad Sunnis believe Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s closest friend, should succeed Muhammad Shiite Muslims believe Muhammad’s cousins Ali should succeed Muhammad Most Muslims today are Sunnis Shiites opposed Umayyad Caliphate, Sunnis supported it

9 A New Dynasty During the 700s, Shiites began to oppose Umayyad Caliphate About 750, Shiites overthrew Umayyads and the Abbasid Caliphate rose to power Abbasid Caliphate ruled for nearly 500 years Abbasids made Baghdad the capital Under Abbasids, Baghdad became the Arab world’s most powerful city

10 The Empire Breaks Abbasids grew a rich culture, but could not keep empire together In 1055, Turks took Baghdad, ruler called himself “Sultan” – holder of power In 1258, Mongols from central Asia invaded, burned Baghdad, ended Arab Empire

11 The Ottoman Empire In late 1200s, Ottoman Turks conquered much of Byzantine empire 1453, Mehmed II (“the Conqueror”) took Constantinople, renamed it Istanbul Suleiman I (“the Lawgiver”) was greatest Ottoman Sultan Organized Ottoman law Built schools and mosques throughout empire Ottoman Empire finally ended in early 1900s

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