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Chapter 10. Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes Desert and Town Life Clans provided security and support in desert Farming communities in the fertile lands.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10. Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes Desert and Town Life Clans provided security and support in desert Farming communities in the fertile lands."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10

2 Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes Desert and Town Life Clans provided security and support in desert Farming communities in the fertile lands Crossroads of Trade and Ideas Mecca Kaaba – site of an ancient shrie Allah – Arabic word for God

3 Muhammad, Prophet of Islam Revelations Gabriel called to him during meditation in a cave outside of Mecca Muhammad became convinced that he was the last of the prophets Islam – submission to the will of Allah Muslim – one who is submitted 613 – began publically preaching in Mecca

4 Muhammad, Prophet of Islam The Hijrah Migration from Mecca to Yathrib (renamed Medina) Muhammad became the leader politically, socially, and religiously Returning to Mecca Muhammad led 10,000 of his believers back to Mecca in 630

5 Beliefs and Practices of Islam The Five Pillars Faith – statement of faith Prayer – mosque – an Islamic house of worship Alms – support for the less fortunate Fasting - Ramadan Pilgrimage – Hajj to Mecca A Way of Life Sources of Authority Quran – the holy book of the Muslims

6 Muhammads Successors Spread Islam Caliph – successor or deputy Rightly Guided Caliphs Abu-Bakr and the next three elected caliphs Jihad – striving and can refer to the inner struggle against evil Also armed struggle against unbelievers Reasons for Success Well disciplined and expertly commanded Fighting weak empires in Arabia Persecutions suffered by people under Byzantine or Sassanid rule Treatment of Conquered Peoples Tolerance of other religions especially Christianity and Judaism

7 Internal conflict Creates a Crisis Umayyads – family who came to power after the murder of Ali in 661 Sunni-Shia Split Shia – party of Ali – caliph needed to be a descendant of Muhammad Sunni – followers of Muhammads example Sufi – rejected the luxurious life and pursued a life of poverty

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9 Control Extends Over Three Continents Al-Andalus – settlement in southern Spain Abbasids Consolidate Power Capital moved to Baghdad Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands Fatimid – formed by Muslims who claimed descent from Muhammads daughter Fatima Muslim Trade Network Sakk – notes of exchange for any bank in the Empire

10 Muslim Society The rise of Muslim Cities Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, and Cordoba Four Social Classes Muslims at Birth Converts Protected Peoples – Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians Slaves – POWs and non-Muslims Role of Women Expected to submit to men Had more property and economic rights than most women in the world Expected to be veiled in public

11 Muslim Scholarship Extends Knowledge Emphasis on scholarship and learning House of Wisdom – a combination library, academy, and translation center

12 Art and Sciences Flourish Muslim literature Poetry – bravery, love, generosity, and hospitality Fairy tales, parables, and legends Muslim Art and Architecture Calligraphy – art of beautiful hand writing Huge domes and vaulted ceilings Medical Advances Al-Razi – greatest physician Math and Science Stretch Horizons Philosophy and Religion Blend Views The Ideal Man


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