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Chapter 10 The Muslim World.

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1 Chapter 10 The Muslim World

2 The Rise of Islam Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes
Desert and Town Life Clans provided security and support in desert Farming communities in the fertile lands Crossroads of Trade and Ideas Mecca Ka’aba – site of an ancient shrie Allah – Arabic word for God

3 The Rise of Islam Muhammad, Prophet of Islam Revelations
Gabriel called to him during meditation in a cave outside of Mecca Muhammad became convinced that he was the last of the prophets Islam – “submission to the will of Allah” Muslim – “one who is submitted” 613 – began publically preaching in Mecca

4 The Rise of Islam Muhammad, Prophet of Islam The Hijrah
Migration from Mecca to Yathrib (renamed Medina) Muhammad became the leader politically, socially, and religiously Returning to Mecca Muhammad led 10,000 of his believers back to Mecca in 630

5 The Rise of Islam Beliefs and Practices of Islam The Five Pillars
Faith – statement of faith Prayer – mosque – an Islamic house of worship Alms – support for the less fortunate Fasting - Ramadan Pilgrimage – Hajj to Mecca A Way of Life Sources of Authority Qur’an – the holy book of the Muslims

6 Islam Expands Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam
Caliph – successor or deputy “Rightly Guided” Caliphs Abu-Bakr and the next three elected caliphs Jihad – striving and can refer to the inner struggle against evil Also armed struggle against unbelievers Reasons for Success Well disciplined and expertly commanded Fighting weak empires in Arabia Persecutions suffered by people under Byzantine or Sassanid rule Treatment of Conquered Peoples Tolerance of other religions especially Christianity and Judaism

7 Islam Expands Internal conflict Creates a Crisis Sunni-Shi’a Split
Umayyads – family who came to power after the murder of Ali in 661 Sunni-Shi’a Split Shi’a – party of Ali – caliph needed to be a descendant of Muhammad Sunni – followers of Muhammad’s example Sufi – rejected the luxurious life and pursued a life of poverty

8 Islam Expands

9 Islam Expands Control Extends Over Three Continents
Al-Andalus – settlement in southern Spain Abbasids Consolidate Power Capital moved to Baghdad Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands Fatimid – formed by Muslims who claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima Muslim Trade Network Sakk – notes of exchange for any bank in the Empire

10 Muslim culture Muslim Society The rise of Muslim Cities
Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, and Cordoba Four Social Classes Muslims at Birth Converts Protected Peoples – Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians Slaves – POWs and non-Muslims Role of Women Expected to submit to men Had more property and economic rights than most women in the world Expected to be veiled in public

11 Muslim Scholarship Extends Knowledge
Muslim culture Muslim Scholarship Extends Knowledge Emphasis on scholarship and learning House of Wisdom – a combination library, academy, and translation center

12 Muslim culture Art and Sciences Flourish
Muslim literature Poetry – bravery, love, generosity, and hospitality Fairy tales, parables, and legends Muslim Art and Architecture Calligraphy – art of beautiful hand writing Huge domes and vaulted ceilings Medical Advances Al-Razi – greatest physician Math and Science Stretch Horizons Philosophy and Religion Blend Views The “Ideal Man”

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