2Levels of organization for plants and animals CellsTissuesOrgansOrgan Systems
3Plant organization Plant cell (bark cell) Plant tissue (bark tissue) Plant organ (leaves, stems, roots)Plant system (work together to make, transport, and store food)
4Plant OrgansLeaf:function: make food, give shape, keep water inside plantcuticleVascular bundle(xylem & phloem)epidermispalisade mesophyllspongy mesophylllower epidermisstomataguard cell
5Leaf Parts:Cuticle: waxy layer on outside surface, prevents water lossEpidermis: outer layer, protectionMesophyll: photosynthetic tissue, made up of 2 layersStomata: openings on leaf surface for exchange of gasesGuard cell: controls the size of the stomataXylem: carries water from roots to leavesPhloem: carries food from leaves to other parts of the plant
6Plant OrgansStems:functions: hold the leaves up, moves water, food, and other materials.
7Plant OrgansRoots:functions: take in water and other materials from soil, hold plant in soil, store extra food
8Plant Organs Flowers: Non reproductive parts = petal and sepal Reproductive parts = stamen and pistilStamen – male reproductive part contains the anther which makes the pollen containing spermPistil – female reproductive part contains the ovary at the bottom which holds ovule that makes the eggs
9In plants, sexual reproduction takes place in the flower.
11Female Parts Pistil = the female structure of the flower Ovary = contains ovules where eggs are formed.Stigma = receives the pollen during fertilization.Style = area between the stigma and ovary.
12Male Parts Stamen = the male reproductive structure of a flower Anther = where pollen is produced.Filament = holds up the antherPollen = male gametePollen shape is different for each plant
13Other Flower Structures Petals = usually colorful, leaf-like structures surrounding the male and female reproductive organs.Sepals = found below the petals and encase the rest of the flower when it is in bud and not yet opened
14Plant ProcessesTranspiration: the evaporation of water from the stomata of leavesAbsorption: uptake of water from the rootsResponse to stimulus: plants respond to external stimuli from a specific direction Ex: tropisms
15Tropisms: “trop” = turn, change “ism” = thing Phototropism = the tendency of a plant to move towards a light sourceHydrotropism = the tendency of a plant to grow with the roots reaching toward waterGeotropism = the tendency of a plant to grow with the roots downward and with the leafy parts upward