2 Levels of organization for plants and animals CellsTissuesOrgansOrgan Systems
3 Plant organization Plant cell (bark cell) Plant tissue (bark tissue) Plant organ (leaves, stems, roots)Plant system (work together to make, transport, and store food)
4 Plant OrgansLeaf:function: make food, give shape, keep water inside plantcuticleVascular bundle(xylem & phloem)epidermispalisade mesophyllspongy mesophylllower epidermisstomataguard cell
5 Leaf Parts:Cuticle: waxy layer on outside surface, prevents water lossEpidermis: outer layer, protectionMesophyll: photosynthetic tissue, made up of 2 layersStomata: openings on leaf surface for exchange of gasesGuard cell: controls the size of the stomataXylem: carries water from roots to leavesPhloem: carries food from leaves to other parts of the plant
6 Plant OrgansStems:functions: hold the leaves up, moves water, food, and other materials.
7 Plant OrgansRoots:functions: take in water and other materials from soil, hold plant in soil, store extra food
8 Plant Organs Flowers: Non reproductive parts = petal and sepal Reproductive parts = stamen and pistilStamen – male reproductive part contains the anther which makes the pollen containing spermPistil – female reproductive part contains the ovary at the bottom which holds ovule that makes the eggs
9 In plants, sexual reproduction takes place in the flower.
11 Female Parts Pistil = the female structure of the flower Ovary = contains ovules where eggs are formed.Stigma = receives the pollen during fertilization.Style = area between the stigma and ovary.
12 Male Parts Stamen = the male reproductive structure of a flower Anther = where pollen is produced.Filament = holds up the antherPollen = male gametePollen shape is different for each plant
13 Other Flower Structures Petals = usually colorful, leaf-like structures surrounding the male and female reproductive organs.Sepals = found below the petals and encase the rest of the flower when it is in bud and not yet opened
14 Plant ProcessesTranspiration: the evaporation of water from the stomata of leavesAbsorption: uptake of water from the rootsResponse to stimulus: plants respond to external stimuli from a specific direction Ex: tropisms
15 Tropisms: “trop” = turn, change “ism” = thing Phototropism = the tendency of a plant to move towards a light sourceHydrotropism = the tendency of a plant to grow with the roots reaching toward waterGeotropism = the tendency of a plant to grow with the roots downward and with the leafy parts upward