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Plant Kingdom.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Kingdom."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Kingdom

2 General Characteristics
- Undergo photosynthesis - Cell wall - Chlorophyll - Longest living organisms on Earth - 2 stages of life 2 Types of Plants 1. Nonvascular 2. Vascular - No specialized tissues for transport Nonvascular Plant - Smaller in size - Rely on diffusion for water and nutrients

3 - Has specialized tissues for transport
Vascular Plants - Has specialized tissues for transport - Composed of systems: Root, Stem, Leaves 3 Types of Vascular Plants 1. Seedless 2. Gymnosperm 3. Angiosperm

4 Seedless - Contain a vascular system but produce no seeds Gymnosperm - Do NOT produce flowers - Usually woody (Ex: Trees) - Needle-like leaves Angiosperm - Produces flowers and fruit - Seeds are contained within fruit 2 Types of Angiosperms 1. Monocots 2. Dicots

5 Cotyledon - Seed leaf Monocots - Leaves with parallel veins - Flower parts in threes - Bundles of vascular tissue are scattered - One cotyledon Dicot - Leaves with branching veins - Flower parts in fours or fives - Bundles of vascular tissue in rings - Two cotyledons


7 Reproduction of Flowering Plants

8 - Flowers are adapted for sexual reproduction
Pollination - Plant fertilization - Occurs within flowers - Pollen catches on stigma - Tube grows through style to the ovules - Sperm fuses with egg to create new plant From Flower to Plant - After fertilization, ovule develops into a seed - Ovary develops into a fruit - Fruit swells and ripens - Some animals eat fruit and spread seeds


10 From Seed to Plant - Some seeds become dormant - Germination occurs when seed is planted in a suitable environment Germination - Sprouting of a seed

11 Alternation of Generations
- Plant life cycles are complex Gametophyte - Phase when sex cells are produced - Fertilization occurs with sperm and egg Sporophyte - Phase when spores are produced - Sperm fertilizes a spore


13 Asexual Methods of Reproduction
1. Plantlets 2. Tubers 3. Runners Plantlets - Tiny plants grow along edge of leaves - Falls off and begins growing on its own Tubers - Underground stems develop - Produces new plants Runners - Above-ground stems develop - New plants develop called runners

14 Seed Plant Structure

15 2 Types of Vascular Tissue
1. Xylem 2. Phloem Xylem - Transports water and minerals Phloem - Transports food 3 Main Functions of Roots 1. Absorb water and minerals from soil 2. Keep plants secure in ground 3. Store extra food


17 3 Main Functions of Stems
1. Support the plant body 2. Transport materials 3. Store extra materials - Soft, thin, and flexible Herbaceous Stem Woody Stem - Rigid, made of wood and bark Leaves - Main function is to produce food Cuticle - Outer covering - Prevents water loss

18 Stomata - Tiny openings on leaves - Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide Epidermis - Layer right inside of cuticle - Allow light to pass through - Under the upper epidermis Palisade Layer - Where the majority of photosynthesis occurs Spongy Layer - Below the palisade layer - Provides space for gases to flow freely - Contains xylem and phloem


20 Flowers Sepal - Modified leaves - Protects the flower bud Petal - Brightly colored leaf-shape - Attracts animals Stamen - Male reproductive structure - Composed of a filament and anther - Anther contains pollen Pollen - Male sex cells - Contain sperm

21 Pistil - Female reproductive structure - Composed of a stigma, style, and ovary - Catches pollen for fertilization Ovary - Contains ovule and eggs - Ovary and ovule develop into fruit and seeds


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