Presentation on theme: "KINGDOM PLANTAE Think of three ways a plant cell is different from an animal cell."— Presentation transcript:
KINGDOM PLANTAE Think of three ways a plant cell is different from an animal cell.
PLANT CELLS WHAT TYPE OF CELLS ARE PLANT CELLS? EUKARYOTIC Nucleus
PLANT CELLS Cell Wall The cell wall is made primarily of CELLULOSE, a complex carbohydrate. Keeps the cell from rupturing Prevents water loss Shape and protection
PLANT CELLS Vacuole Vacuoles are membrane-bound spaces used for temporary storage of materials.
PLANT CELLS Chloroplast The chloroplasts are cell organelles that capture light energy and produce food (glucose) to store. They contain the photosynthetic pigment, CHLOROPHYLL. This primary photoreceptor absorbs the light energy. CHLOROS- “green”, PHYLLON- “leaf”
ALL PLANTS: are (also called producers) because they can produce their own food.
PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Roots: Anchors the plant Collects water and nutrients for plant Cannot carry out photo. ROOTS Stem: Above ground Transports nutrients If green, can photosynthesize STEM Leaves: LEAVES Major Photosynthesis Transpiration Remember Capillary Action and Adhesion
Section 23.2 Summary – pages 612-621 Carbon Dioxide moves in and Oxygen and water move out of a leaf through the stomata, which are located on the top and bottom of the leaf. LEAVES
Section 23.2 Summary – pages 612-621 Guard cells are tiny cells that surround and control whether the stomata are open or shut. LEAVES The loss of water through the stomata is called transpiration.
Section 23.2 Summary – pages 612-621 Transpiration If the plant has enough water and some needs to leave through transpiration, the stomata open. LEAVES
Section 23.2 Summary – pages 612-621 Transpiration If the plant needs to retain water, the stomata close, so water won’t leave. LEAVES
What are the two types of plants? 1. Non-vascular: 2. Vascular: No true roots, stems, or leaves. No vessels (or vascular tissue) inside the plant to move materials and water around Receive water through osmosis Liverwort Has vessels (vascular tissues) to transport water and food More complex Don’t have to live in or right next to bodies of water. Fern Gymnosperm, ConiferAngiosperm, Flowering Moss
VASCULAR, SEEDLESS PLANTS INCLUDES: FERNS CLUB MOSS HORSETAILS THEY HAVE XYLEM AND PHLOEM THEY REPRODUCE BY SPORES These require water for reproduction Sorus- bundles of spores on the fern’s leaves
VASCULAR, SEED PLANTS There are two groups of vascular seed plants: Neither of these require water for reproduction GYMNOSPERMS “CONIFERS” ANGIOSPERMS “FLOWERING” Produce seeds that are not protected by an ovary Do NOT produce flowers or fruit Produce Cones Produce protected seeds ALL produce flowers and fruit Fruit is a ripened ovary with seeds in it
VASCULAR TISSUES The two types of vascular tissue is Xylem and Phloem Xylem: Carries water and dissolved ions from the roots to the stems and leaves Phloem: Carries dissolved sugars from the leaves to all other parts of the plant
ANGIOSPERM A flower’s structure is genetically determined and usually made up of four kinds of organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils. Petals Petals are usually the colorful structures at the top of a flower stem.
ANGIOSPERM Sepals are usually leaf-like and circle below the petals.
ANGIOSPERM : The Male Reproductive Parts The male reproductive part of the flower includes the filament (tube) and anther (where the pollen is. Filament The entire male part is called the stamen. Anther Stamen
Section 24.2 Summary – pages 641-645 Pistil ANGIOSPERM : The Female Reproductive Parts The pistil is the female organ of the flower. The bottom portion of the pistil is the ovary, a structure that contains ovules (eggs). Ovary Style Stigma
FERTILIZATION Pollen grain Stigma Style Ovary Egg cells As the seeds develop, the surrounding ovary enlarges and becomes the fruit.
Seeds have different ways of dispersing into the environment. How do the following disperse? Wind Water Consumption On fur
Section 23.3 Summary – pages 622-625 Tropism is a plant’s growth response to a directional external stimulus. The tropism is called negative if the plant grows away from the stimulus. The tropism is called positive if the plant grows toward the stimulus. PLANT RESPONSES WE WILL LOOK AT THREE TYPES OF TROPISM
Section 23.3 Summary – pages 622-625 The growth of a plant toward light is called phototropism. TROPISM
Section 23.3 Summary – pages 622-625 Gravitropism is plant growth in response to gravity. Roots that grow down into the soil are able to anchor the plant and can take in water and dissolved minerals. TROPISM Stems usually exhibit a negative gravitropism. How do growing seeds exhibit both phototropism and gravitropism?
Section 23.3 Summary – pages 622-625 Some plants exhibit another tropism called thigmotropism, which is a growth response to touch. Because tropisms involve growth, they are not reversible. The position of a stem that has grown several inches in a particular direction cannot be changed. TROPISM Ivy is a good example of a plant that exhibits all three types of tropism.
Section 23.3 Summary – pages 622-625 A responsive movement of a plant that is not dependent on the direction of the stimulus is called a nastic movement. An example of a nastic response is the sudden closing of the hinged leaf of a Venus’s-flytrap. PLANT RESPONSES Naustic movements do not involve growth.