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Plants 4-1, 4-2, 5-1, 5-3, (5-2).

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Presentation on theme: "Plants 4-1, 4-2, 5-1, 5-3, (5-2)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plants 4-1, 4-2, 5-1, 5-3, (5-2)

2 What is a plant? (4-1) Autotrophic Eukaryotic Multicellular
Different structures Complex reproduction cycles

3 What structures do all plants have?
Cell wall made from cellulose Chloroplasts containing chlorophyll Vacuole Cuticle: waxy waterproof layer that covers the leaves and prevents water loss Other organelles….

4 Tissue Plants are multicellular
Cells are organized into tissues, which are groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism Plants have vascular tissue

5 Vascular Tissue Vascular tissue: a system of tube-like structures that that support a plant and allow water, food, and nutrients to run through it.

6 Light (4-2) Things that appear a certain color (blue) reflect that color’s light rays (blue) and absorb the rest (ROYGIV) White light is composed of ROYGBIV White reflects all colors Black absorbs all colors In order for an object to be seen, it MUST reflect some light. Is a red shirt still red in the dark? No, because color is the result of reflected light and if there is no light to be reflected, then there is no color.

7 Plants and Light Pigment: a chemical that produces color and absorbs light What pigment do plants have the most of? Chlorophyll What color is chlorophyll? Green Plants also have other pigments to help them absorb colors of light that chlorophyll can’t. These are called accessory pigments. Ex. Carotenoids, Xanthophylls

8 Photosynthesis Why do plants need light?
Light energy helps plants to make sugar (food) and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. They do this during the process of photosynthesis. light energy carbon dioxide + water sugar + oxygen 6 CO H2O C6H O2

9 Seed Plants (5-1) Seed plants are plants that:
Have vascular tissue Use seeds to reproduce All have leaves, stems, and roots Complex life stages 2 types of seed plants (Gymnosperns) Angiosperms-flowering plants

10 Vascular Tissue Xylem/Phloem Video
Phloem: a type of vascular tissue that transports food and larger nutrients throughout the plant Moves from leaves (source) to roots (sink) Xylem: a type of vascular tissue that transports water and small nutrients throughout the plant Moves from roots to leaves Xylem/Phloem


12 Leaves *Leaves carry out photosynthesis for the plant*
Cuticle covers the surface Upper and lower cells protect the leaf Towards the top, there is a layer of cells that contain chloroplasts Tubes/veins of xylem and phloem Stomata (pores) on the underside of the leaf that, when open, allow CO2 in and O2 and H2O out

13 Transpiration Transpiration: when water evaporates from a plant’s leaves How can plants prevent transpiration? Close their stomata during hot weather Open their stomata only at night

14 Stems (p. 147) Functions: Two types:
Transports substances from the leaves to roots Supports the plant Two types: Herbaceous: soft (dandelion, lily) Woody: Hard (maple tree, rose) Outer layer of bark: protection Cambium: divides to make new xylem and phloem (annual rings) Annual Rings

15 Roots (p.149) Functions: 2 Types Structure: Anchor the plant
Absorb nutrients and water 2 Types Tap root: Thick root that grows deep in the soil Fibrous root: tangled mass of roots Structure: Root cap: tip of the root that contains dead cells Under the root cap, dividing cells Xylem, Phloem, Cambium, Root hairs

16 Plant Parts (p.157) Angiosperms are plants that produce seeds that are enclosed in a fruit

17 Plant Parts FEMALE PARTS
Pistils: contains the female reproductive parts Stigma: the tip of the pistil Style: the slender tube Ovary: protective vessel where the seed develops Ovule: contains the egg cell MALE PARTS Stamen: contains the male reproductive parts Filament: The thin stalk that makes up the stamen Anther: Where pollen is produced Pollen: where sperm cells are located

18 Neither Male nor Female
Flower: Reproductive structure of an angiosperm Petals: colorful, leaf-like structures of a flower Sepals: leaf-like structure that encloses the bud of the flower Plant Part Quiz

19 Life cycle of an Angiosperm (p.159)

20 Life cycle of an Angiosperm
Anther produces pollen, where sperm cells are located. The egg cell is produced in the ovule, which is inside the ovary. Pollen gets transported to the sticky stigma. Pollen grain makes a pollen tube and the sperm travels downwards through the pollen tube towards the ovule. The sperm and egg join during fertilization. Ovule develops into a seed, seed coat, and stored food. The fertilized egg (zygote) becomes the seed’s embryo. Ovary develops into a fruit that encloses the seeds. The seeds will grow into new plants.

21 Seeds (p. 143) Seed: structure that contains a young plant inside
Has 3 major structures: Embryo Cotyledon: stores the food Monocot: 1 cotyledon (corn) Dicot: 2 cotyledons (bean) Seed coat: protects the embryo and food from dying out 1. Disperal: spread of seeds through wind, water, animals 2. Germination: early growth of an embryo where it uses stored food to sprout roots

22 Plant Life Cycle (4-1) Sporophyte: plant that produces spores
Gamete: sperm and egg cells Gametophyte: plant that produces gametes Zygote: fertilized egg cell Fertilization: when a sperm and egg cell unite Gametes (sperm and egg) join to form a zygote Zygote develops into a sporophyte Sporophyte produces spores Spores develop into gametophytes Gametophytes produce gametes Life Cycle

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