2 What is a plant? (4-1) Autotrophic Eukaryotic Multicellular Different structuresComplex reproduction cycles
3 What structures do all plants have? Cell wall made from celluloseChloroplasts containing chlorophyllVacuoleCuticle: waxy waterproof layer that covers the leaves and prevents water lossOther organelles….
4 Tissue Plants are multicellular Cells are organized into tissues, which are groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organismPlants have vascular tissue
5 Vascular TissueVascular tissue: a system of tube-like structures that that support a plant and allow water, food, and nutrients to run through it.
6 Light (4-2)Things that appear a certain color (blue) reflect that color’s light rays (blue) and absorb the rest (ROYGIV)White light is composed of ROYGBIVWhite reflects all colorsBlack absorbs all colorsIn order for an object to be seen, it MUST reflect some light.Is a red shirt still red in the dark?No, because color is the result of reflected light and if there is no light to be reflected, then there is no color.
7 Plants and LightPigment: a chemical that produces color and absorbs lightWhat pigment do plants have the most of?ChlorophyllWhat color is chlorophyll?GreenPlants also have other pigments to help them absorb colors of light that chlorophyll can’t. These are called accessory pigments.Ex. Carotenoids, Xanthophylls
8 Photosynthesis Why do plants need light? Light energy helps plants to make sugar (food) and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. They do this during the process of photosynthesis.light energycarbon dioxide + water sugar + oxygen6 CO H2O C6H O2
9 Seed Plants (5-1) Seed plants are plants that: Have vascular tissueUse seeds to reproduceAll have leaves, stems, and rootsComplex life stages2 types of seed plants(Gymnosperns)Angiosperms-flowering plants
10 Vascular Tissue Xylem/Phloem Video Phloem: a type of vascular tissue that transports food and larger nutrients throughout the plantMoves from leaves (source) to roots (sink)Xylem: a type of vascular tissue that transports water and small nutrients throughout the plantMoves from roots to leavesXylem/Phloem
12 Leaves *Leaves carry out photosynthesis for the plant* Cuticle covers the surfaceUpper and lower cells protect the leafTowards the top, there is a layer of cells that contain chloroplastsTubes/veins of xylem and phloemStomata (pores) on the underside of the leaf that, when open, allow CO2 in and O2 and H2O out
13 TranspirationTranspiration: when water evaporates from a plant’s leavesHow can plants prevent transpiration?Close their stomata during hot weatherOpen their stomata only at night
14 Stems (p. 147) Functions: Two types: Transports substances from the leaves to rootsSupports the plantTwo types:Herbaceous: soft (dandelion, lily)Woody: Hard (maple tree, rose)Outer layer of bark: protectionCambium: divides to make new xylem and phloem (annual rings)Annual Rings
15 Roots (p.149) Functions: 2 Types Structure: Anchor the plant Absorb nutrients and water2 TypesTap root: Thick root that grows deep in the soilFibrous root: tangled mass of rootsStructure:Root cap: tip of the root that contains dead cellsUnder the root cap, dividing cellsXylem, Phloem, Cambium, Root hairs
16 Plant Parts (p.157)Angiosperms are plants that produce seeds that are enclosed in a fruit
17 Plant Parts FEMALE PARTS Pistils: contains the female reproductive partsStigma: the tip of the pistilStyle: the slender tubeOvary: protective vessel where the seed developsOvule: contains the egg cellMALE PARTSStamen: contains the male reproductive partsFilament: The thin stalk that makes up the stamenAnther: Where pollen is producedPollen: where sperm cells are located
18 Neither Male nor Female Flower: Reproductive structure of an angiospermPetals: colorful, leaf-like structures of a flowerSepals: leaf-like structure that encloses the bud of the flowerPlant Part Quiz
20 Life cycle of an Angiosperm Anther produces pollen, where sperm cells are located. The egg cell is produced in the ovule, which is inside the ovary.Pollen gets transported to the sticky stigma.Pollen grain makes a pollen tube and the sperm travels downwards through the pollen tube towards the ovule. The sperm and egg join during fertilization.Ovule develops into a seed, seed coat, and stored food. The fertilized egg (zygote) becomes the seed’s embryo.Ovary develops into a fruit that encloses the seeds.The seeds will grow into new plants.
21 Seeds (p. 143) Seed: structure that contains a young plant inside Has 3 major structures:EmbryoCotyledon: stores the foodMonocot: 1 cotyledon (corn)Dicot: 2 cotyledons (bean)Seed coat: protects the embryo and food from dying out1. Disperal: spread of seeds through wind, water, animals2. Germination: early growth of an embryo where it uses stored food to sprout roots
22 Plant Life Cycle (4-1) Sporophyte: plant that produces spores Gamete: sperm and egg cellsGametophyte: plant that produces gametesZygote: fertilized egg cellFertilization: when a sperm and egg cell uniteGametes (sperm and egg) join to form a zygoteZygote develops into a sporophyteSporophyte produces sporesSpores develop into gametophytesGametophytes produce gametesLife Cycle