Presentation on theme: "What is a plant? Nearly all plants are autotrophs, meaning they make their own food. They are also called producers. All plants are eukaryotes. All."— Presentation transcript:
What is a plant? Nearly all plants are autotrophs, meaning they make their own food. They are also called producers. All plants are eukaryotes. All plants are multicellular. All plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall. All plant cells contain green chloroplasts, which contain chlorophyll. Chlorophyll changes carbon dioxide, water and the energy in sunlight into food (glucose, a sugar) for the plant to use. This process is known as photosynthesis.
Obtaining Water and Other Nutrients Vascular Plants have tissues, or groups of cells, that are specialized to obtain water and other nutrients. Phloem (Flow-um) is the vascular tissue that carries food (sugar) throughout large plants. Xylem (zy-lum) is the vascular tissue that carries water and other nutrients throughout large plants.
Obtaining Water and Other Nutrients Nonvascular Plants are so small that water and other nutrients can move from one cell to the next through the processes of diffusion and osmosis. They do not have vascular tissues. Non-vascular plants can get water from the environment or nearby cells.
Roots Anchor seed plants to the ground Absorb water and minerals from the soil Sometimes store food in the form of starch
Stems Carry substances between the roots and leaves Support the plant Hold the leaves up to the sun
Leaves Capture the sun’s energy and carry out photosynthesis Leaves have tiny holes called stomata which allow water to evaporate from the leaves. This process is known as transpiration.
Reproduction All plants undergo sexual reproduction that involves fertilization, the joining of a sperm cell with an egg cell. Some plants require water to be present in order for the sperm to fertilize the egg. Some plants reproduce by releasing spores. Other plants reproduce by producing seeds that enclose the zygote.
Tropisms Plants respond to environmental stimuli through tropisms. A tropism is a plant’s growth response toward or away from a stimulus Touch, light, and gravity are three important stimuli to which plants show growth responses, or tropisms. Thigmotropism- response to touch Phototropism- response to light Gravitropism – response to gravity
Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process where plants take the energy from sunlight and change it into food (glucose) Water and carbon dioxide are required for photosynthesis to take place. Photosynthesis produces glucose and oxygen. Photosynthesis.asf
Reproduction Angiosperms are flowering plants. They have specialized reproductive organs called flowers. Flower buds are protected by a leaf- like sepal. Petals are usually colorful in order to attract pollinators, such as insects.
Reproduction Inside the flower are the male stamen and the female pistil. The stamen is made of a stalk-like filament that holds up the anther, which produces pollen (contains the sperm) The pistil has a sticky stigma that is held up by the style. The style connects the stigma to the ovary, which contains the eggs.
Reproduction Once the eggs are fertilized, they become seeds and the ovary turns into a fruit. Seed plants go through a variety of developmental stages beginning with the germination of the seed. Germination requires water. The seed contains the young plant and stored food
Gymnosperms These are non-flowering vascular plants that produce naked seeds, seeds not enclosed by a fruit. Many have needle-like leaves. They reproduce using structures called cones.
Exit Slips Take out a sheet of paper, write your name on it, and answer the following questions. 1. What does multicellular mean? 2. How do non-vascular plants get water? 3. What tissue do vascular plants use to transport food? 4. In what part of the plant does most transpiration occur? 5. After fertilization takes place in a flower, what does the ovary become?