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Unit 7: Plants 7.0 Botany: The study of plants. 7.1 Characteristics of Plants -Multicellular -Nucleus with DNA -Photosynthesis -Cell Wall -Sessile (Do.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 7: Plants 7.0 Botany: The study of plants. 7.1 Characteristics of Plants -Multicellular -Nucleus with DNA -Photosynthesis -Cell Wall -Sessile (Do."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 7: Plants 7.0 Botany: The study of plants. 7.1 Characteristics of Plants -Multicellular -Nucleus with DNA -Photosynthesis -Cell Wall -Sessile (Do not Move)

2 7.2 Plant tissue are organized into 3 main groups: Roots, Stems, and Leaves

3 7.3 Shoot System: includes the stems and leaves and is where photosynthesis, support, and storage occur. 7.4 Root System: is below the ground and holds the plant in place and lets a plant take up water and nutrients from the soil.

4 Roots 7.5 Functions of Roots: 1. Anchors the plant. 2. Absorbs water and minerals. 3. Stores food that was produced in the leaves.

5 7.6 Root Types: 1. Tap roots: deep growing, ideal for absorbing deep water and storing food. Examples: Carrots, Beets 2. Fibrous roots: shallow growing, ideal for absorbing surface water and preventing soil erosion. Example: Grass

6 7.7 The Stem: Holds plants upright and transports materials between the leaves and the roots. 7.8 The Leaves: Capture sunlight for the process of photosynthesis and exchange materials with the air.

7 7.9 Cork (bark): Protects the tree from weather, insects, and fires. 7.10 Cork Cambium: Produces new cork. The Stem

8 7.11 Xylem: Transports water up from the roots to the leaves. 7.12 Phloem: Transports food down from the leaves to the roots. 7.13 Vein: A bundle of phloem and xylem vessels coming from the stem.

9 Plant Diagram

10 The Leaf 7.14 Cuticle: (waxy cuticle) prevents loss of water. 7.15 Epidermal Hairs: prevents loss of water by blowing winds. 7.16 Epidermis: outer layer that protects leaf.

11 Leaf Anatomy 7.17 Palisade Layer: Most of the leaf’s chloroplasts are in this layer. 7.18 Spongy Layer: This layer has large spaces between cells to allow water and gases to move through.

12 7.19 Stomata: Openings in the bottom of a leaf that allow air, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide to come in and out of the plant. 7.20 Guard Cells: They open and close the stomata.

13 7.21 Stomata can close to stop water loss. Therefore, during drought stomata close.


15 3 Types of Plant Tissue 7.22 Dermal Tissue: the tissue that covers a plant, like skin. This tissue helps protect the plant from injury or drying out. 7.23 Vascular Tissue: Carries water, nutrients, and sugars through a plant. (Xylem, Phloem) 7.24 Ground Tissue: the tissue in all parts of the plant, between the dermal and vascular tissue.

16 Plant Processes 7.25 Photosynthesis: The process of using sunlight to produce sugar. 7.26 Chlorophyll (inside Chloroplast):a light absorbing chemical that traps the energy from sunlight and converts it to sugar. (Reason plants are Green.)

17 7.27 Transpiration: The process of pulling water from the roots up to the leaves.

18 Flowers 7.28 Flower: produces seeds for reproduction. 7.29 Sepal: protects the delicate petals before it opens up (blooms). 7.30 Petal: colors and patterns used to attract pollinators and protects the internal parts of the flower

19 7.31 Stamen: (Male) produces pollen. 7.32 Pollen: is a dry structure that holds a sperm cell. 7.33 Pistil: (Female) produces eggs.

20 Flower Life Cycle 7.34 Pollination: when pollen is successfully transferred from an anther to a stigma. 7.35 Self Pollination: from anther to stigma on the same plant. 7.36 Cross Pollination: from the anther on one plant to the stigma on another plant.

21 7.37 Ways pollen can be transferred: -Wind -Animals…insects, spiders, birds

22 7.38 Fertilization: when a pollen tube transfers the genes into the egg. 7.39 Seeds: a structure that has 3 parts 1. Plant embryo 2. Food 3. Protective coat 7.40 Embryo: an immature form of an organism that can grow and develop.

23 7.41 Seed Dispersal: 1. Parachutes / Sails…carried by winds. 2. Hooks and Barbs…attach to animals passing by. 3. Fruits…animals eat fruit and seeds.

24 7.42 Fruits: is a mature plant ovary. Examples: Apple, Cherry, Nuts 7.43 Vegetables: are other plant parts. Examples: Carrots-Roots, Celery-Stems, Lettuce- Leaves 7.44 Foods we often call vegetables are really fruits because they contain seeds inside.

25 7.45 Some plants do not have flowers. Examples: Mosses, Ferns, Some Trees 7.46 Mosses / Ferns: Reproduce by spores and need water. The sperm of these plants can only move through water to reach the eggs.

26 7.47 Trees: (Cone-Bearing Trees) Reproduce by means of pollen that is produced by a male cone and travels by wind to a female cone. The seeds then develop in the female cone. Example: Pine Trees

27 7.48 Vegetative Propagation: is a form of asexual reproduction in which new plants grow from stems, leaves, roots, and other non-reproductive tissue. 7.49 Many plants reproduce both sexually and asexually.

28 Plant Adaptations 7.50 Plant Adaptations: help plants survive (live and grow) in different areas. 7.51 Adaptations: are special features that allow a plant to live in a particular place or habitat.

29 7.52 Stem Adaptation: Desert plants, such as cactus, often have thick stems that store water, an adaptation for dry environments.

30 7.53 Leaf Adaptation: Cactus have sharp spines that are modified leaves, the spines protect against water loss. This is an adaptation for a dry environment. -Some plants modify leaves that can wrap around other plants or structures to help the plant grow upward. (Example: Bougainvillea)

31 7.54 Root Adaptation: A cactus has shallow roots that help quickly absorb as much water as possible from a rain shower. -Some plants grow on the trunks of tall trees in the rain forest and the roots never touch the soil.

32 Life Cycle of a Tree 1.Meiosis: Sperm and Egg are produced. 2.Pollination: Pollen reaches the pistil of a flower and creates a pollen tube. 3.Fertilization: The sperm cell reaches the egg and fertilization occurs creating a seed and an ovary. 4. Seeds and Fruits: Seed or Fruit fall to ground and can develop into a new tree.

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