2 Plant Characteristics What are the characteristics of a plant?Eukaryotic cells (cells have a nucleus)MulticellularHave cell wall made of cellulose (sugar)Autotrophic (get food from photosynthesis)Reproduce sexually or asexually
3 Vascular v. Non-vascular Plants What are 2 main groups of plants?What are the traits of non-vascular plants?Non-vascularVascularThey do NOT have special tissues that carry water or nutrients through the plantThey are very smallUse osmosis to take in waterLive in shady moist places
4 Plant Tissues What are traits of vascular plants What is xylem? Contains special tissues called xylem and phloem that carry water and nutrientsThey are large plantsSome have flowers (angiosperms), some don’t (gymnosperms)Hollow tubes that carry water up from the roots to the leaves
5 Plant Tissues What is phloem? Hollow tubes that carry sugar down from the leaves to the roots
6 Plant Parts What are the main parts of a plant? What are the functions of the roots?RootsStemsLeavesAbsorb water and nutrients for the plantsHold the plant to the groundStore extra food for the plant. Plant food is starch (a polysaccharide)
7 Plant Parts What are the functions of stem? What are the functions of the leaves?Supports the plantCarries nutrients, glucose, and waterGets leaves closer to the sunPHOTOSYNTHESIS!!TranspirationGas exchange
8 Plant Parts What is photosynthesis? What is transpiration? What are stomates (stomata)?A process that uses sunlight to convert CO2 and H2O into glucoseIt occurs in the chloroplasts (plant cells only)The loss of water and CO2 through the stomates (stomata) of a leafOpenings on the underside of a leaf that allow CO2, H2O and O2 to enter and leave the leaf
10 Plant Parts What is involved in gas exchange? Movement of CO2, H2O and O2 into and out of a leafOccurs through stomata (stomates)The transport that moves Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide is Diffusion.The transport moving water is Osmosis and Capillary Action
11 Transport of Water Osmosis Passive Transport-requires no energy. Moves with the concentration gradient (high to low)Plants prefer HypotonicWater is stored in the central vacuoleCapillary ActionHelps move water through the Xylem and out the stomataIt is the water molecules will be attracted to each other and the walls of the tube causing the level to rise.
12 Plant Parts What are the parts of a leaf? Cuticle-waxy covering on the top of the leaf that helps it retain waterEpidermis-the skin of the leaf; blocks pathogens (disease causing stuff)Mesophyll-cells where photosynthesis occursVascular tissue-xylem and phloem
13 Plant Reproduction What are the parts and functions of a flower The function: attract pollinators, produce pollen (sperm), and ovules (eggs)Male parts (stamen)Pollen; the part of flower that contains sperm cellsAnther; the part of the stamen that makes pollenFilament; a long stalk that hold up the anther
16 Plant Reproduction Female parts (pistil) Stigma; the sticky tip of the pistil where the pollen attachesStyle; the long tube connecting the stigma to the ovary; sperm travel down this tubeOvary; the swollen part at the bottom of the pistil that contains the ovulesOvules; eggsWhat are the parts and functions of a flower?
19 Plant Reproduction What are the parts and functions of a flower? Accessory parts (not male or female)Petals; usually brightly colored; attract insects for pollinationSepal; usually green; protects the flower while it’s developingReceptacle; bottom of the flower that holds all the parts together